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Kaela Allton

on 25 November 2014

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Transcript of Development

Socioemotional Development
A child's engagement with the surrounding world
Prenatal Environment
Environmental Factors
Prenatal Development
Genetic Factors
Cognitive Changes
Cognitive Development
The growth of a child's understanding
changes in intellectual performance
Implicit memory and some measures of semantic memory - little or no decline
working memory and episodic memory - show age-related decline
fluid intelligence - ability to deal with new problems
decline starts in twenties and continues gradually from there
crystallized intelligence - accumulated knowledge, including vocab, facts, and strategies learned
relatively stable
Why do we notice decline mostly in elderly?
In 30s and 40s, gains in crystallized intelligence compensates for losses in fluid intelligence
e.g. mastery of skills and strategies
Age-related declines affect most people to roughly the same degree
contrary to popular belief
Socioemotional Development
broad patterns in goals and challenges
Physical and Sensorimotor Changes
a story of decline
Many physical and sensory abilities peak in early to mid-twenties, then gradually decline
physical changes in middle age - weight gain, loss of muscle mass, hair thinning and graying
sensory changes - declines in sight, smell and hearing
Prenatal Development
Internal Environment
The cellular environment - fate of each cell (its eventual destination) is determined by its neighbors and the neonate's genes
The mother’s blood supplies the baby with oxygen and nutrients
This is why a mother’s nutritional state matters
External Environment
Teratogens – factors that disrupt development
Ex: alcohol, lead, cigarette smoke
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – developmental disorder characterized by psychological and physical problems
Psychological - learning disorders, behavior difficulties
Physical - smaller stature, facial abnormalities
result of mother’s heavy drinking

Infancy and Childhood
Physical and Sensorimotor Development
size - growth spurts beginning around ages 2, 6, 10, and 12
complexity - increased neural connections and ability to support many activities
Physical reflexes
- infant closes hand into fist when palm is touched
- when baby's cheek is brushed, his head turns toward stimulus and mouth opens
- infant sucks on whatever is placed in his mouth
Piaget's Stage Theory
object permanence
- the belief that an object exists even when it cannot be seen
not achieved until about 8 or 9 months old
A-not-B effect
- tendency for infants to reach for a hidden object where it was previously hidden (A), rather than where where the child watched someone hide it most recently (B)
Schemas (ways of interacting with the world) enable development
child refines and extends these schemas to better understand his world, based on two processes:
- interpreting his world in terms of the schemas the child already has
- changing his schemas based on interations with the child's world
Preoperational Period (2-7 years)
learning how to interrelate their mental representations
Sensorimotor Period (birth - 2 years)
learning object permanence
The child can think representationally, but cannot relate these representations to each other or take another point of view other than one's own
Primary Characteristic:
failure to conserve - when objects/liquids take a different dimension, the child does not understand that the object/liquid has retained its original amount
Concrete Operational Period (7-12 years)
learned how to interrelate mental representations and abstract ideas
able to change own mental representations in variety of ways
can only apply mental representations to concrete objects or events
learning how to apply mental operations
Other Studies of Children's Conception of the Physical World
Habituation Procedures
This suggests that the broken rod was new to them, therefore they had not perceived the original rod as broken
Piaget's object permanence - flawed
Objects exist after leaving sight, but infants may not be able to understand how to deal with the object
Number and Mathematical Reasoning
Simplifying Piaget's conservation study shows that children do have some understanding of numbers or counting
Ex: in one study, babies noticed the difference in number of objects presented to them
the potential problem with Piaget's study may be a methodological one

Social Cognition and Theory of Mind
Infants seem to understand others' intentions
Woodward study - goal-related movement
one aspect of the child's developing theory of mind
Theory of mind - set of interrelated concepts we use to make sense of our own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, as well as those of others
includes an understanding of preferences, beliefs, therefore child's actions will take these into consideration
Limitations exist to this comprehension
false beliefs - children seem to assume their beliefs are shared by others and cannot understand that others' beliefs might be false (until about 4.5 years old)
Formal Operational Period (12+ years)
learning to think hypothetically
will discuss under topic of adolescence
Early Social Interactions
Infants are predisposed to attend to and respond to faces
Facial expressions and tone of voice
respond positively when consistent
at a very young age, infants are learning about social interactions and developing expectations for other's behavior
social referencing - process of using others' facial expressions as a cue about the situation
ex: child learns what is good/bad based on how caregiver responds to that situation
environment affects growth
formations of first social relationships
Attachment - strong, enduring, emotional bond
may grow out of physical comfort provided
children long for sense of comfort
Bowlby - caregiver provides secure base (relationship in which child feels safe and protected)
Imprinting - learned attachment formed at early period in life
ex: ducks
not a thing for humans
Forms of attachment (Ainsworth):
securely attached - exploratory; show minor distress when mother leaves and enthusiasm upon her return
anxious/resistant - do not explore; upset when mother leaves and act ambivalent upon her return (wanting held but struggling to get down when held)
anxious/avoidant - distant; ignore mother
disorganized - no organized way of dealing with stress

Implications of Attachment
Attachment relationship provides child with an internal working model of the social world
a set of beliefs and expectations about how people behave in social relationships and as guidelines for interpreting actions
Children with secure attachment patterns are more attractive playmates
The Role of Culture
Cultural factors determine the type of skills (intellectual and motor) and the level of skill a child will gain
Child/parent interactions shape:
child's capacity for remembering life events
child's understanding of what is important
Children also shape their social interactions
ex: a child's zone of proximal development determines when a parent will step in and assist child

Role of Parenting Styles
forms and effect
Impact of Child Care
Child care facilities do not harm children
comparison between kids at childcare versus kids at home
A matter of quality
high quality - warm, responsive environment
low quality - may contribute to inattentive and unsociable toddlers
However, main predictor of child's status - quality of home life
Hindrances to Child Development
the role of divorce and neglect
suggested that 20-25% of children with divorced parents experience significant problems
may be the pre-divorce conditions that actually impact the child
child's age and attachment styles play a role
Lack of attachment
isolation is devastating
impacts child's ability to interact in later social situations
Peer Relationships
the growing power of peers
signs of friendship by 2 years old
exert much influence on children
they change and develop
provide support, information, and training ground for mastery of skills
enhance children's ability to understand the minds of others
leads to loneliness
risk of developing antisocial behavior or adjustment difficulties
attachment status, parenting style in child's home, and temperament all play a role
Development of Moral Thinking
a child's growing sense of right and wrong
Results of Kohlberg study
Moral reasoning develops in series of stages:
Preconventional reasoning
- rewards and punishments
"If you let your wife die, you'll get in trouble"
Conventional reasoning
- social relationships, conventions, and duties
"Your family will think you're bad if you don't help your wife"
Postconventional reasoning
- ideals and moral principles
"It's wrong to let somebody die"
not universal across gender and culture
However, children do seem to progress through this series of stages
Conscience and Moral Feeling
how does a conscience emerge?
Conscience -
desire to act in a moral manner, and a feeling of guilt when one does not act morally
How does a conscience emerge?
reward and punishment
physical punishment - not effective
sense of conscience less likely in child who's disciplined harshly
better answer -
child's relationship with parents
child is sensitive to social interactions
disapproval from parents serves as a punishment
the better the quality of the child-parent relationship, the faster the child's progress in developing a conscience
boys - 12; girls - 10
primary sexual characteristics - bodily structures directly related to reproduction
growth of sex organs
secondary sexual characteristics - indirectly related
growth of underarm hair
boys - early maturation may lead to more popularity and more success in athletics
girls - early maturation may lead to greater stress and greater risks of psychological disorders
gradual myelination of frontal lobes (self-regulation)
this means that adolescents do not have fully functional self-regulatory capacities to accompany these new physical, emotional, and social changes
leads to more risk-taking and impulsivity
Physical Development
Yay, puberty
Cognitive Development
increased sophistication
Piaget - formal operations period (12+ years)
able to think about the possible
applies in:
school - scientific hypotheses and mathematical proofs
social relations - imagine new possibilities and challenge beliefs and conventions
Challenges to Piaget:
some say cognition not fundamentally different than that of middle childhood
rather, more efficient strategies and better memory
The point - thinking is highly variable and uses sophisticated logic now
Socioemotional Development
changes in one's social and emotional world
determining who one is
- all humans endure series of crises throughout life cycle
identity vs. role confusion
major task:
developing a stable ego identity, or sense of who one is
integrating changes in one's body and intellectual capacities
failure to do so - develop negative identity (e.g. as a delinquent) or role confusion (uncertainty)
Relations with Peers and Parents
shifting focus
Period of "storm and stress," but most adolescents develop without much emotional turbulence
What determines whether adolescence will be turbulent or not?
parenting styles
: children of authoritative parents tend to be more cheerful, responsible, and cooperative
results not limited to Western culture
Sometimes process toward greater autonomy does not go well
risky behavior/recreation (crimes, pregnancies)
drug use - more likely during adolescence than any other time
- absence of fully mature forebrain makes it more difficult to rein in impulses
- some may not think about, or take seriously, the consequences
Adulthood and Older Age
Causes of Age-Related Decline
the factors involved
changes in blood flow or neuroanatomy
cells can only function with certain amount of oxygen
gradual death of neurons across life span
bodily changes may diminish availability of oxygen and glucose and can impair brain functioning
circulatory problems diminish quantity and quality of brain's blood supply
Alzheimer's disease - degenerative brain disorder characterized by memory loss followed by increasing disorientation and culminating in physical and mental helplessness
exact cause remains uncertain, although genetic factors increase someone's risk
Ways to slow the process:
more stimulation - people who are less stimulated are more vulnerable to effects of aging
physical exercise - can help preserve mental functioning
growing literature about mental exercise
Stages of Adulthood (Erikson)
Intimacy vs. isolation
(20s - early 40s)
major concern - developing an intimate relationship
building a partnership is key
failure - isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
(40s - 60s)
major concern - finding meaning in one's work
accomplishing this task brings generativity (contribution to the next generation and causes that will outlive the individual)
failure - sense of stagnation/burnout
Integrity vs. despair
(60s - death)
major concern - finding meaning in the life one has led
success - sense of accomplishment and feeling at peace with one's life
failure - leads to despair and feelings of regret
of an infant
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