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Conduct of the War: WWI

How was WWI fought? How did the U.S. get involved?

Amy Jo Hennig

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of Conduct of the War: WWI

Course & Conduct of WWI Study the photographs and suggest adjectives that could be used to describe the soldiers and the battlefield seen Write a paragraph (7-8 sentences) discussing how the battle scene in the photographs is similar to or different from the way war is waged today. Each statement made MUST be supported by evidence from the photos. Let's Analyze!! How Do I Do That?!?!
1. Introduction
2. Statement or opinion
3. Evidence from photos to support #2
4. Next statement or opinion
5. Evidence from photos to support #4
6. Statement or opinion
7. Evidence from photos to support #6 A local quarrel in the Balkans quickly became far more dangerous... 1. Austria-Hungary bombs Serbia

2. Russia sides with Serbia

3. Germany declared war on Russia and their ally, France

4. Britain came to defend France and declared war on Germany What happened next... Germany
Ottoman Empire Central Powers France
Russia Allied Powers The effect of war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned...The United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls. -President Woodrow Wilson,
August 19, 1914
Stay neutral or declare war? What does the United States think about the war?? We are glad...to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples...The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations or political liberty. -President Woodrow Wilson,
April 2, 1917 Wilson remains neutral Helped the economy
Peace movements Provided to both sides:
supplies Family & cultural ties
1/3 of Americans are foreign born U.S. Policy Favored Policy Opposed Policy American Policy Eastern Front Western Front http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/maps/maps_outbreak.html Overseas Update:

Follow the link and select "Play Animation" Russia advanced into Germany & Austria Hungary Germany counterattacked; stopped Russia 250,000 Russians dead in 2 battles Germany marches into Belgium British, French, and Belgium barely won outside of Paris Stalemate

deadlock Challenges British blockade ships into Germany
Prevented weapons & military supplies from German coast
Extended idea of "contraband" to food British Blockade Flew flags of neutral ships--at risk

Searched merchant ships

Sink ship (removed passengers first) War Zone What is the problem with this policy?? British liner
Sunk by German U-Boats
128 Americans died
Germany thought they were carrying weapons/ammunition Lusitania Germany promised to spare all lives in future attacks

One condition: British must end blockade

Wilson accepted the pledge, but not the condition Sussex Pledge Why did the German threat to sink all ships in British waters push the United States to declare war? Let's Think About This... German U-Boat Response Counterblockade using U-boats:

Any British or Allied ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk--and it would not always be possible to warn crews and passengers of an attack "unrestricted submarine warfare" Starvation Blockade Key Idea!! Why were America's ties with the Allies stronger than its ties with the Central Powers? Letter from Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico hoping to become allies
British agents intercepted code Zimmerman Note Proposed in telegram:
Alliance between Germany & Mexico
Support Mexico in "recovering lost territory" in Texas Crack the code... Election of 1916 Russian Revolution The last obstacle removed... replaced oppressive monarchy with a representative government Supporters of American entry into the war could claim that this was a war of "democracies against brutal monarchies" So the BIG question is...
What is the biggest reason the U.S. went to war?
What are the benefits to staying neutral?
What are the benefits to declaring war? AMERICA ACTS War Resolution:
Message to Congress
April 4, 1917 Senate Vote: 82-6
House Vote: 373-50 U.S. Front Only 200,000 men were in service when war was declared America Mobilizes: May 1917: Congress passes act Selective Services Act Needed to build an army large and modern enough to impact Europe (remember...250,000 Russian men died in the first 2 battles of the war!) (remember...an Arms Race occurred in Europe prior to the war!) Required ALL men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service 24 million men registered
3 million called up
2 million reached Europe African-Americans 400,000 served in armed forces Women in WWI Not allowed to enlist, but accepted the Army Corps of Nurses 1/2 served in France Served in segregated units and were excluded from the Navy and Marines Army=no rank, no pay

13,000 joined the navy and marines with full military rank nurses
telephone operators America Turns the Tide Convoy System attempt to beat the U-boat attacks

heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships across the Atlantic Ocean Enthusiasm By 1917 Allied Forces were exhausted and demoralized

Fresh U.S. troops brought new energy and enthusiasm to the trenches "I have never seen or heard of such an elaborate, complete line of defense as the British had built at this point. Everything was fronted with barbed wire and other entanglements. Artillery was concealed everywhere. Railroad tracks reached from the trenches back into the zone of supply. Nothing had been neglected to hold this line, save only one important thing, enthusiasm among troops, and that was the purpose of our presence." Lieutenant Joseph D. Lawrence Previously in War
Combatants, physically fighting the war
Impersonal War
Howitzers, type of canon
Machine guns
600 bullets per minute
How would this change warfare? New Technologies Flamethrowers
“Big Guns”
Big Berthas
75 tons
2,100 lb shells
9 miles
Tank Chemical weapons, utilize toxic agents such as poison gas to kill or harm many people
Mustard gas
Huge, painful blisters, blindness, lethal damages to the lungs
Used wind to spread
Gas masks Trenches
-Grenades, machine guns
Supply trenches
Reserve trenches
-Weary soldiers

No man’s land
250 yards wide
Barbed wire One got use to many things, but I never overcame my horror of the rats. They abounded in come parts, great loathsome beasts gorged with flesh… About the same time every night the dug-out was invaded by swarms of rats. The gnawed holes in our haversacks [backpacks] and devoured our…rations.
Horrible smells
Trench foot Airplanes

Faster, travel further, Machine gun mount

Zeppelins (Germany planes)
Poor accuracy

Fighter planes (British) German’s sending more troops to battle getting within 50 miles of Paris
Allies launched the Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Break German supply line and communication by getting to the Sedan Railroad
1 million U.S. troops and six weeks of fighting
Nov. 11th 1918 Germany agreed to a truce 23.4 The War Comes to Close Status after the War
Over 8 million dead
21 million injured
Starvation, disease
Human spirit damaged
Damaged to farms, forests, towns, factories, homes, roads, bridges, railroad lines
Financial costs Conditions of WWI & the Trenches Warfare conducted with the use of armored and motorized vehicles and weapons and usually involving rapid movement over long distances. What is "mechanized" warfare?? depend upon machines/engine power
tanks and armored vehicles
need air and ground support (new weapons) "Over There" by George M. Cohan What is the mood of this music? Does the mood match the lyrics? What do you think Cohan's purpose was in writing this song? According to the song, why should young men fight in the war? "On Patrol in No-Man's Land" by James Reese Europe What is the mood of this music? Does the mood match the lyrics? According to this song, what dangers do soldiers have to look out for? What do you think Europe's purpose was in writing this song? Paris Peace Conference
1919 Clemenceau (France) Wilson (U.S.)

Lloyd George
(Britain) Wilson's 14
A Plan for World Peace Goal was to finish a "war to end all wars" and prevent global conflict on this scale again 3 Main Sections:

1. Prevent future wars
2. Boundary Changes
3. League of Nations Treaty of Versailles Allied Powers reject Wilson's plan

Wilson concedes on all points in return for the establishment of League of Nations *Conference did not include the defeated Central Powers So, did your group come up with the actual plan for peace?! Main Provision of the Treaty of Versailles Established 9 new nations Britain and France got temporary colonies from the Ottoman Empire Barred Germany from maintaining an army.
Required to pay reparations (war damages)--33 Billion Dollars
War Guilt Clause-forces Germany to admit sole responsibility for war
Took all of German colonies The Treaty & Germany U.S. Opposition to the Treaty Too Harsh

Sell out to Imperialism

Exchange of colonial areas from one country to another

No Self Determination
Congress did not want to commit to the League of Nations

Treaty called for Joint Military Action against aggressors

Congress wanted to be able to declare war

Afraid of being dragged into another European War

Wilson tours the country to encourage Congress to sign Treaty
All or nothing
34 Speeches in 3 Weeks-Suffers a Stroke July 2nd 1921, Congress passes resolution to end war

Later sign separate treaties with Germany and Austria-Hungary Armistice:
Ending of Hostilities

November 11, 1918 at 11:00AM
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