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High School Biology - 4 Macromolecules of Life

According to Oregon Content Standards. For my student teaching practicum.

Agnes Bowers

on 5 January 2014

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Transcript of High School Biology - 4 Macromolecules of Life

Tree of Life

Macromolecule: Carbohydrates
The main energy source for the human body.
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen bond together
Sucrose, the sugar of table sugar (and maple syrup!) is made of one glucose monomer and one fructose monomer,
Macromolecules: Carbohydrates
is a linear molecule composed of 3,000 or more glucose molecules strung together, thus being a polysaccharide.

Cellulose, which

is plant fiber, cannot be digested by human beings.
Macromolecules: Carbohydrates

is the polysaccharide molecule that functions as the secondary long-term energy storage in animal cells.
It is made by the liver and the muscles but it can be also made by glycogenesis within the brain and stomach.
This is starch, which is present in plant cells.

is the principal polysaccharide used by plants to store glucose for later use as energy.
These blood cells or erythrocytes, carry oxygen from our lungs to all parts of the body.

What are they made of?
Macromolecules: Protein
Inside every erythrocyte, or red blood cell, there are 280 million molecules of

Each molecule is made of
four separate globin strands
, and each contains a flat disk, a "heme" carrying iron.
Amino Acids
make these
globin strands
Macromolecules: Proteins
Amino acids
can link together in a linear fashion, and make various shapes, including folds.
This is a 3D depiction of glycine.
Macromolecules: Proteins
Amino acids play central roles both as building block of proteins and intermediates in metabolism.
The 20 amino acids make up every protein life needs.
Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Macromolecules: Proteins
are comprised of amino acids.
They are present in and vital to every living cell.
hold together, protect, and provide structure to the body of a multi-celled organism.
Each type of protein has its own unique structure and function.
Macromolecules: Lipids
This cell membrane is constructed largely of
(fats) arranged in a
bi-layer, or 2 layers ("bi" means two).
Each lipid in the membrane of the cell (and other membranes) has a head and two tails each. The heads are attracted to water, while the tails cluster away from water.
Macromolecules: Lipids
Here are the atoms of a single lipid. How many tails do you see?
(Technically this is a
because it has a phosphate in the middle. Can you find it? (Look for a P (phosphate) surrounded by 4 Os (oxygen).)
Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids
Chromatin fiber
is organized into large loops anchored to specific proteins. In these loops DNA compacts to about 10,000-times its length.
Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids
Here you can see the repeating units, or monomers, that make up the two strands of DNA.
Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids
There are four monomers in DNA called nucleotides.
The names of these nucleotides are Adenine(A),Thymine (T), Cytosine (C) and Guanine G).
Each nucleotide in turn is made of three simple "building blocks" ­ Phosphoric acid and sugar that are the same in all four nucleotides; and so-called "base" that, similar to the side chains in amino acids, is unique for each of the four.
Single sugars
are called

Carbohydrates that contain only monosaccharides and disaccharides are called simple sugars.
When more are added to the chain, it is called a
which means
Cellulose passes through the digestive tract without being absorbed into the body - this is the fiber we need to keep our intestines healthy.

Complex carbohydrates are long chains of simple sugar units bonded together.
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