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9th grade Geography

Andrew Lewis

on 11 April 2015

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Transcript of Geography

Political map – state/national boundaries, capitals, and major cities
Topographic (relief) map – indicates shape and elevation
Climate map – indicates type of weather
Economic map – shows natural resources or economic activities
Types of Maps
Used mostly for world maps
Mercator’s Projection – first important cylindrical map
Accurate: Shapes and Directions
Inaccurate: Areas and Distances
Goode’s Projection – interrupted projection
Accurate: Shapes and Areas
Inaccurate: Distances and Directions
Robinson’s Projection – combines the best of Goode’s and Mercator’s
Minimizes all four types of distortions
Flat maps much more useful than globes
Can show greater detail
Map projection – any method used to show the earth’s round surface on a flat map
The earth’s sphere divided into two halves
Equator – divides the Northern and Southern hemispheres
Ptolemy’s work inspires interest in exploration
New trade routes open to the Far East
Spices, gold, and jewels
Columbus’ discovery of the New World encourages exploration
The Age of Exploration
Created the grid, made locating places easier
Regional Geography
Examines one region at a time
Ex. Far East (Major cities, climate, mountains, resources, etc.)
Geo (“earth”) – graphy (“written description”)
Two main branches
Physical Geography
The study of earth and its resources
Human Geography
The study of man and his usage of resources
Branches of Geography
Relief – The different heights and depths of a surface or region
Contour lines – separate colors on a relief map,
Section IV
Map Relief
Cartographers developed three kinds of maps
Cylindrical Projections
Azimuthal Projections
Conic Projections
Solution for Distortion
Four features of a globe
*No map can be accurate in all four ways*
Typical globe covered by twelve gores
Problem of D
Section III
Map Projections
Run north and south from pole to pole, prime meridian, runs from 0 to 180 degrees, labeled as east or west
Parallel to the equator
Run east and west, numbered from 0 to 90 degrees, determined by its angle from the equator, measures north or south
Degrees divided into sixty minutes (‘), minutes divided into seconds (‘’), allow for precise locations
Section II
The Geographic Grid
GPS (global positioning system)
Designed for military use, adapted for civilian use
Still much of the world to be explored
Europe begins to colonize and conquer
New maps include symbols for topography
Detailed land features, elevation
Thematic maps (maps designed to communicate information on a particular topic
Post WWII – aircraft and satellites used to make better, more detailed maps
The Modern Age
Rome borrows map-making techniques from Greece
Promotes the geocentric (earth-centered) theory
Theory remains unchallenged for fourteen centuries
The first ancient people to study the earth extensively
Alexander the Great – expands Greek knowledge and spreads Greek culture
History of Geography
Five Fundamental themes
Themes of Geography
History – the study of events in time (what happened and when)
Geography – the study of space and place (where things happen)
Section I
What is Geography?
Chapter 1
Compass rose – shows the orientation of the map
Scale – indicates distance
Map Symbols
Both work better on smaller scale maps
Azimuthal – touches one point on the globe
Conic – touches one line of latitude
Azimuthal and Conic
The basic tool of history is a timeline
The basic tool of geography is a map
Two ways to study Geography
Systematic Geography
Examines one branch at a time
Ex. Urban Geography (London, Tokyo, NYC)
Place – physical characteristics and human characteristics
Movement – of people, goods, ideas, diseases, etc.
Region – defined by formal boundaries or functions
Location – either specific or relative to the surrounding environment
Interaction – both among people and between people and their environment
Early mapmakers supplied kings with maps
Plan wars, open new trade routes, build new cities
Earliest map is a clay tablet from the Babylonian Empire around 2300 BC
The Greeks
Eratosthenes – Greek mathematician
First great geographer
Wrote the book Geography
Calculated the circumference of the Earth – 25,000 sq. miles
1543 – Nicolaus Copernicus
Heliocentric theory
1569 – Gerhardus Mercator
Cartography, publishes a map
Distortion – occurs when a globe is transferred to a flat map
Mental map
A person's perception of the world
Communicates directions from person to person
Influenced by prejudice and bias
Used by surveyors to determine exact altitude of certain locations
Vegetation depends on the climate
Biome – a large region where distinct populations of plants and animals coexist
Varied Highland
Coriolis Effect
Wind Belts
Influence the World’s climate as well as early exploration and conquest
Trade winds – tropical winds, constant, named after their origin
Westerlies – bring warm air from the tropics to the north
The movement of air caused by the heating and cooling of air masses
Warm and Cold Air Masses
Air mass – a large area of moving air with a similar temperature
Follow regular patterns, *p. 33
Temperate Zone
Middle latitudes – between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Ocean and between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Ocean
God’s creation of light and atmosphere:
Light is the “fuel” that drives the earth’s “engine”
Supplies energy for plants, warms the land and sea
Thermal energy is in constant motion
Three main systems to distribute thermal energy
Seasons, winds, and ocean currents
Section V
The Earth’s Climate
The breakdown of rocks by water, plant roots, temperature changes, and the formation of ice and mineral crystals
Enriches the soil
Sediment – particles of sand, silt, and clay
Humus – decayed formerly living matter
Earthquakes and volcanoes
Not fully understood
Internal Forces
Remnants of the Flood and ice age
Great Lakes – largest lake system
Caspian Sea – largest lake
The Continents
Divided into three parts
A basic path of water flow within an ocean
Drifts – slowest currents
Circular patterns, keeps the waters from freezing and too warm
Ocean Currents
Wind erosion – abrasive action of tiny particles
Wave erosion – erodes shorelines, builds sandbars
Glacial erosion – leave behind hills of debris
External Forces
Mountain building force
Deposit new lava on the earth’s surface
Depositional mountains
Mauna Loa – largest active volcano
Section IV
The Earth’s Surface – Changing Forces
Oceans partially enclosed by land
Mediterranean Sea – Home to the Greeks and Romans
7 arms in the north, “7 seas”
Harbor – sheltered body of deep water
Tributaries – Rivers that flow into other
River system – The main river and its tributaries
Features of a river
Drainage Area
Navigable rivers
97% of the world’s water
Four principal oceans
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic
Flow into each other – world ocean
Distribute thermal energy from the sun, provides water for rain clouds, protection from other nations, fishing, and salt
Section III
The Earth’s Waters
Major Landforms
Nearly eight thousand miles in diameter
Divided into several layers
Crust – 4.5 to 31 mile deep outer “skin”
Mantle – layer of hot, plastic material
Core – liquid outer core, solid inner core (iron and nickel)
The Land
Section II
The Earth’s Surface
Section I
The Earth’s History
Chapter 2
The Earth’s Surface and Climate
Desert - Tropics
Tundra - Polar
Section VI
The Earth’s Vegetation
Can be broken into 4 phases
The Creation
The Flood - cataclysm
The Current World
The Future World
Plate Tectonics theory – crust broken into pieces called plates, crash into and pull apart
Faults – deep cracks in the earth’s surface
Fold – unconsolidated sediment pushed from both sides
Plate Tectonics
Volcanic Forces
Polar Regions
High latitudes – between the North Pole and the Arctic Circle and between the South Pole and Antarctic Circle
The Tropics
Low latitudes – between the equator (0 degrees) and the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn
Tropical Grassland - Savannas
Temperate Grassland - Steppes
Tropical Rain Forest - Tropics
Shrub Forest - Mild Mediterranean
Coniferous Forest - Cold, Subpolar
Deciduous Forest - Moderate
Total surface area – 197 million sq. miles
29% of the world is land, the rest is water
Continents – main landmasses
Islands – landmasses surrounded by water
Continental – British Isles
Oceanic – Hawaii
Landforms – variation in the landscape
Mountain Range – Himalayas
Plains – wide areas of level land
Alluvium – deposits of rich sediment
Plateaus – wide areas of relatively flat land, tablelands/highlands
Caused by the slant of sunlight and the tilt of the earth’s axis
Explains why different latitudes have different seasons
Climate - typical weather in a region over a long period of time
Determined by the amount of thermal energy and water the reaches each region
Weather - atmospheric conditions of a location at a specific time
Five broad categories of world climate
Tropical Rainy and Dry
Both occur in the warm tropics
Tropical Rainy - Extremely heavy rain
Tropical wet areas determine where trees grow
Sufficient rainfall, but too cold to support vegetation
Ice caps - areas that have a thick layer of ice that never melts (Antarctica and Greenland)
Polar and subpolar regions do allow some plants
Comprises most of the world's good farmland and major civilizations
Four climate regions all in the middle latitudes
Covers mountainous regions
Lapse rate - the rate of decrease in temperature with increase in altitude
Full transcript