Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Absolutism

Global 10 Fairport High School Rachford/Stokes
by

Gayle Rachford

on 4 September 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Absolutism

Absolutism...
ab-so-lut-ism: noun
In
Europe
,
absolutism
dominated the political and social world of the
continent
from the 1500s until the
Age of Revolution
began in the 18th century. Critical
monarchs
of the time, such as
Louis XIV
,
James I
,
Charles V
, and
Philip II
, added significantly to their territories,
centralized
their governments, and constructed buildings and cities that stand to this day.
Europe
India
was
ruled
by the
Mughals
-
descendants
of the
Mongol
conqueror,
Genghis Khan
- from 1526 to 1857, beginning when
Babur
defeated a
sultan
of
Delhi
in 1526 and ending with the defeat of Bahadur Shah II following the
Indian Rebellion of 1857
. "
Akbar the Great
" is the most
notable
of the Mughal emperors. He permitted his subjects to practice the
religion
of their choice, created a
bureaucracy
,

implemented
an
income tax
, welcomed
cultural blending
, and was a
patron
of the arts. His
legacy
is one of
liberal reform
on the Indian
sub-continent
.
India
Middle East
Eastern European and western Asian lands were united under Ivan IV, known as "
Ivan the Terrible
" in the 16th century
.
Following Ivan's death in 1584, power in Russia
fluctuated
between members of the landed elite - the
Boyars
- and the
Romanov
royal family. Russians call this period "
The Time of Troubles
".
Stability
and
modernization
took shape in
Russia
following the
ascension
of Peter I, known as "
Peter the Great
" r. 1682-1725, who worked to make Russian power an equal of the most powerful
monarchies
in Western Europe.
Russia
The first
unification
of China took place in 221BC under the rule of Qin Shi Huang [Ch-in], known as "
Shi Huangdi
" or First
Sovereign

Emperor
of
Qin.
Shi Huangdi was an
absolute autocratic ruler
in his time, ordering the construction of the
Great Wall
and an army of life-sized
terracotta soldiers
to accompany him into the after-life. His political
legacy
includes the enforcement of
'legalism'
in China. In the 14th century AD, Hongwu drove the
Mongols
from eastern
China
and established himself as the first of the
Ming Emperors
. By 1644, the
Manchus
drove the Ming from power and founded the
Qing Dynasty
, which lasted until the
Chinese Revolution
overthrew them in 1912.
Asia
Philip II of Spain







r. 1554-1598
Louis XIV



of France,
r. 1643-1715
Charles V,





Holy Roman Emperor,
r. 1519-1556
James I of Scotland,
England and Ireland,





r. 1567-1625
Charles I of England,
Ireland and Scotland,



r. 1625-1649
Maria Teresa










Empress of Austria, Germany,
Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia
& the Holy Roman Empire,
r. 1740-1780
Peter the Great
Czar of Russia,





r. 1682-1725
Akbar the Great, r. 1556-1605
Mumtaz Mahal Shah Jahan
r. 1627-1666
Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, r. 1520-1566
The
Ottoman Empire
existed from 1299 - as the
Byzantine Empire
(330-1453
AD
) weakened - to 1922 following the end of
WWI
. At its height in the 16th and 17th
centuries
, it controlled much of the lands surrounding the
Mediterranean Sea
,
Anatolian
and
Arabian Peninsulas
making it a global
trading power
and center of
cultural interaction
between
East
&
West
.
Common
THEMES
or
CHARACTERISTICS
of
absolutism
:

Islam: Empire of Faith Pt 3, The Ottomans - PBS
38:20 - 42:14 Safavid Empire
Ottomans = Sunni Muslims
believe leaders do not need to be descendants of Muhammad's family
Persians = Shi'a Muslims
believe leaders must be direct descendants of Muhammad, himself
The
Safavid
or
Persian Empire
existed from 1501-1736 and
rivaled
the
Muslim

Ottoman Empire
to the
west
and the
Mughal Empire
to the
east.
Reaching their height in 1587 under the rule of Shah Abbas, known as "
Abbas the Great
", the Persians
modernized
their military and
utilized

gun powder
&
canons
to fight wars of
conquest
with the neighboring
empires
.
Isfahan, the Persian capital from 1598-1722
Abbas the Great, r. 1587-1629
Ivan IV r. 1533-1584
"Ivan the Terrible"





Peter and Paul Fortress,



1706-1740
"A deo rex, a rege lex." = "The King is from God, and law is from the king."
Death of Ivan & rise of Peter the Great
Peter orders the construction of Peterhof Palace, 1705-1725
Catherine the Great constructs the Winter Palace, additions in 1790 onward
"Catherine the Great"
Catherine II


r. 1762-1796
Peterhof Palace


St. Petersburg
The
Winter Palace
, St. Petersburg
Quick video clip of Shi Huangdi, r. 221BC-210
CHINA
Shi Huangdi, r. 247BC-221
JAPAN
Tokugawa Shogunate, 1600-1868
Tokugawa Ieyasu [ee-yeh-yah-soo], r. 1603-1605, in power from 1600-1616
The
Tokugawa Shogunate
is considered a
feudal
dictatorship that ruled Japan from 1600 to 1868AD. No longer an absolute ruler, the Japanese Emperor served as a figure-head leader, while the
Shogun
reined with the most power over the country. Landed
samurai
warriors, called "
daimyo
" [DY-mee-oh], held armies of local samurai warriors who swore to the daimyo their absolute allegiance.
Peasants
and
artisans
,
who made up 4/5s of the population, lived as
vassals
under the control of local daimyo families and their samurai.
Merchants
had the lowest status until trade opened Japan up to greater economic development in the 16th century. The
Meiji Restoration
,
in 1868, ended the era of the Shogunate in Japan.
Ottoman Empire
Persian Empire
Coat of Arms
House of Bourbon, France
"...but I must tell you that their liberty and freedom consists in having government.... It is not their having a share in the government; that is nothing appertaining unto them. A subject and a sovereign are clean different things." ~ Charles Stuart, 1649 (minutes before he was beheaded by the people of England during the Second English Civil War)
Hagia Sophia, constructed from 532-537AD
1474 years ago! Converted from a church to a mosque by Mehmed II
when he conquered Constantinople in 1453.
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
constructed in 691 CE
renovated

once by Suleiman's architects
Suleymaniye Mosque
constructed between 1550 - 1558
heavy
taxation
of
commoners

limit the power of the local
nobility

ignore local
legislative assemblies

centralize
the
political power
of the
monarchy

control the
church
and
religious authorities

cultivate
a spirit of
unity
under the ruler

propagandize
feelings of
nationalism
over
regionalism

extravagant
spending & wealth
concentration

build a professionally trained military
expand
territory
through
conquest

construct
monumental
buildings to demonstrate power

create a loyal
bureaucracy
to approve ruler's wishes

1. The principle or the exercise of complete & unrestricted power in government.
2.
Monarchical government
where the monarch is not limited by a
constitution
or by
law
.

3. The monarch holds
executive
,
legislative
&
judicial
powers.

4. "L’état, c’est moi." = "The state, it is me." ~ Louis XIV of France
Monarch believes power stems from God, "
Divine Right Rule
"

How will the Global Regents ask YOU about absolutism in Europe?
?) Akbar the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent, and
Louis XIV
are all rulers associated with
(1) natural rights
(2) filial piety
(3) religious toleration
(4) absolutism
?) One similarity in the policies of
Louis XIV
and of Suleiman the Magnificent is that both leaders
(1) expanded their empires in the Americas
(2) encouraged the growth of democracy
(3) increased the power of their central governments
(4) abolished the bureaucracy
?) A main goal of the monarchs of Europe during the
Age of Absolutism
was to
(1) establish legislative bodies
(2) centralize political power
(3) improve the quality of life for the peasant class
(4) expand the role of the Catholic Church
?) What was a key characteristic of an
absolute monarchy
in the 16th and 17th centuries?
(1) centralized governmental authority
(2) increased political rights for peasants and serfs
(3) freedom of religion
(4) a system of checks and balances
?) One way in which Suleiman the Magnificent, Akbar the Great, and
Louis XIV
are similar is that each was
(1) an important religious reformer
(2) a supporter of laissez-faire practices
(3) a leader of independence movements
(4) an absolute monarch
?) Which form of political leadership is most closely associated with
Ivan the Terrible
, Suleiman the Magnificent, and
Philip II
of Spain?
(1) democratic
(2) absolutist
(3) communist
(4) theocratic
?) Which heading best completes the partial outline below?
I. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A. Writings of Thomas Hobbes
B.
Divine right
theory
C. Centralization of political power
D. Reign of
Louis XIV

(1) Beginning of Global Trade
(2) Growth of Democracy in Europe
(3) Rise of Absolutism
(4) Age of Exploration
?) A common goal of
Philip II
of Spain and
Louis XIV
of France was to
(1) spread Calvinism
(2) promote political revolutions
(3) maintain absolute power
(4) isolate their nations
Louis XIV, in Sun King costume
Versailles, 1st four buildings constructed from 1664-1710
Romanov Imperial Coat of Arms
?) A DEO REX, A REGE LEX —“The king is from God, and law is from the king.” —
James I

This quotation best reflects the concept of
(1) constitutional monarchy
(2) separation of powers
(3) equal representation
(4) divine right rule
?) Under the
Old Regime

in France
, the burden of taxation fell mostly on the
(1) monarchy
(2) clergy
(3) nobles
(4) commoners
How will the Global Regents ask YOU about absolutism in the Middle East?
?) Akbar the Great,
Suleiman the Magnificent
, and Louis XIV are all rulers associated with
(1) natural rights
(2) filial piety
(3) religious toleration
(4) absolutism
?) One similarity in the policies of Louis XIV and of
Suleiman the Magnificent
is that both leaders
(1) expanded their empires in the Americas
(2) encouraged the growth of democracy
(3) increased the power of their central governments
(4) abolished the bureaucracy
?) One way in which
Suleiman the Magnificent
, Akbar the Great, and Louis XIV are similar is that each was
(1) an important religious reformer
(2) a supporter of laissez-faire practices
(3) a leader of independence movements
(4) an absolute monarch
?) Which form of political leadership is most closely associated with Ivan the Terrible,
Suleiman the Magnificent
, and Philip II of Spain?
(1) democratic
(2) absolutist
(3) communist
(4) theocratic
?) One way in which
Suleiman the Magnificent
and Akbar the Great are similar is that they both brought about periods of
(1) political stability and religious tolerance
(2) religious conquest and persecution
(3) isolationism and cultural stagnation
(4) modernization and political disunity
Tokugawa family crest
What do you see here?
Qin Dynasty flag
Islam: Empire of Faith Pt 3, The Ottomans - PBS
0:0 - 10:12 Rise of Osman "Warrior for Islam"
Islam: Empire of Faith...
11:02 - 33:40 Suleiman the Magnificent
?) Which empire included all of the lined areas shown on this 1814 map?
(1) Holy Roman
(2) Russian
(3) Ottoman
(4) Austro-Hungarian
?) Which factor most contributed to the cultural diversity of the
Ottoman Empire
?
(1) legal system based on the Qur’an (Koran)
(2) central location spanning Europe, Africa, and Asia
(3) alliances with the Russians and Hapsburgs
(4) reliance on colonies in the Americas
?)
The Ottomans
were a strong trading empire through the mid-1600s because they
(1) controlled access to the eastern Mediterranean Sea
(2) had the most powerful navy in the world
(3) dominated West African caravan routes
(4) conquered most of Asia
?)
Armenians
under
Ottoman rule
and Cambodians under the Khmer Rouge both experienced
(1) an outbreak of the plague
(2) human rights violations
(3) economic sanctions
(4) an agricultural revolution
?)
• Location — included lands surrounding the
eastern Mediterranean
Sea
• People —
Turks
,
Arabs
, Greeks,
Muslims
, Christians, and Jews
• Nickname during the 19th and early 20th centuries — “Sick Man of Europe”

Which empire is described by these characteristics?
(1) Gupta
(2) Mongol
(3) Roman
(4) Ottoman
How will the Global Regents Exam ask YOU about absolutism in India?
?)
Akbar the Great
, Suleiman the Magnificent, and Louis XIV are all rulers associated with
(1) natural rights
(2) filial piety
(3) religious toleration
(4) absolutism
?) One way in which Sulieman the Magnificent,
Akbar the Great
, and Louis XIV are similar is that each was
(1) an important religious reformer
(2) a supporter of laissez-faire practices
(3) a leader of independence movements
(4) an absolute monarch
?) One way in which Suleiman the Magnificent and
Akbar the Great
are similar is that they both brought about periods of
(1) political stability and religious tolerance
(2) religious conquest and persecution
(3) isolationism and cultural stagnation
(4) modernization and political disunity
How will the Global Regents Exam ask YOU about absolutism in Russia?
?) A main goal of the monarchs of Europe during the
Age of Absolutism
was to
(1) establish legislative bodies
(2) centralize political power
(3) improve the quality of life for the peasant class
(4) expand the role of the Catholic Church
?) What was a key characteristic of an
absolute monarchy
in the 16th and 17th centuries?
(1) centralized governmental authority
(2) increased political rights for peasants and serfs
(3) freedom of religion
(4) a system of checks and balances
?) Which form of political leadership is most closely associated with
Ivan the Terrible
, Suleiman the Magnificent, and Philip II of Spain?
(1) democratic
(2) absolutist
(3) communist
(4) theocratic
?) Which factor most contributed to the
cultural diversity
of the
Ottoman Empire
?
(1) legal system based on the Qur’an (Koran)
(2) central location spanning Europe, Africa, and Asia
(3) alliances with the Russians and Hapsburgs
(4) reliance on colonies in the Americas
How will the Global Regents Exam ask YOU about absolutism in China and Japan?
?) What is the primary focus of this map?
(1) population density
(2) resource distribution
(3) imperialism
(4) urbanization
Shi Huangdi, first emperor of the Qin dynasty, used warfare to weaken six of the seven warring states.
His efforts to unify China led to the
consolidation
of his power.

… The Qin [under Shi Huangdi] made many changes that were meant to unify China and aid in administrative tasks. First, the Qin implemented a
Legalist
form of government, which was how the former Qin territory had been governed. The area was divided up in 36 commanderies which were then subdivided into counties. These commanderies had a civil governor, a military commander, and an imperial inspector. The leaders of the commanderies had to report to the Emperor in writing. The Legalist form of government involved rewards and punishments to keep order. Also, the state had absolute control over the people, and the former nobility lost all of their power. The nobility were also transplanted from their homes to the capital. Groups were formed of units of five to ten families, which then had a group responsibility for the wrongdoings of any individual within the group.…

Source:
“Qin Dynasty,” EMuseum, Minnesota State University at Mankato

?) Based on this EMuseum document, what were two ways the Qin under Shi Huangdi attempted to control China?
…His [Shi Huangdi’s] most significant reforms were to
standardize
Chinese script [writing], weights and measures and even the length of cart
axles
so that every cart could run smoothly in the ruts. An extensive new network of roads and canals improved trade and the movement of troops between provinces.…

Source:
“The Emperor with an ego big enough for all time,” Timesonline

?) Based on this document, what was one way Shi Huangdi’s actions helped China?
Li Si was a strong supporter of legalism and served as the Grand Counselor to Emperor Shi Huangdi. In this passage, Li Si is responding to a scholar who has challenged the Emperor’s movement away from traditional values.

…“I humbly propose that all historical records but those of Chin [Qin] be burned. If anyone who is not a court scholar dares to keep the ancient songs, historical records or writings of the hundred schools, these should be
confiscated
and burned by the provincial governor and army commander. Those who in conversation dare to quote the old songs and records should be publicly executed; those who use old
precedents
[examples] to oppose the new order should have their families wiped out; and officers who know of such cases but fail to report them should be punished in the same way. “If thirty days after the issuing of this order the owners of these books have still not had them destroyed, they should have their faces tattooed and be
condemned
to hard labour at the Great Wall. The only books which need not be destroyed are those dealing with medicine,
divination
and agriculture. Those who want to study the law can learn it from the officers.” The emperor
sanctioned
this proposal.…

Source:
Szuma Chien, Records of the Historian, The Commercial Press

?) According to Li Si’s proposal, what was one way Shi Huangdi could control the people of China?
DBQ

Throughout history, autocratic leaders have exercised authority over their countries and the lives of their people. The actions of autocratic leaders have both helped and hurt their countries and their peoples. Examples of such leaders include Emperor Shi Huangdi, Czar Peter the Great, and King Louis XIV.

Select two leaders mentioned in the historical context and for each
• Describe actions taken by the leader that show this individual was an autocrat
• Discuss the extent to which this leader’s use of autocratic power helped and/or hurt his country or his people
… On August 8, 1700,
Peter
made his historic decision to declare war on
Sweden
, in order to open a road
*
from Russia to the West by the
conquest
of the
Baltic littoral
[coastal region]. He had secured the
collaboration
of
Poland
and
Denmark
, but his
alliance
with these two rivals of Sweden was to prove
ineffectual
. With nothing to rely on but his own forces, Peter was defeated at
Narva
by the
valiant
Swedish King,
Charles XII
. Refusing to be discouraged by this defeat, Peter raised and
equipped
new armies; he put
immense
effort into creating a good
artillery
; he worked with his own hands on the construction of the
frigates
[ships] that were to give him mastery of the
Baltic
. Then his
disciplined
and well-trained
regiments
seized the mouth of the
Neva
[River] and
entrenched
themselves along the
coveted
[desired]
littoral
. On June 27, 1709, in a battle at Poltava, he put his great
adversary
, Charles XII, to flight.…

*
road: a place less enclosed than a harbor where ships may ride at anchor

Source:
Constantine de Grunwald, “A Window on the West,” in Christopher Hibbert, ed., The Pen and the Sword, Newsweek Books (adapted)

?a) According to Constantine de Grunwald, what was Peter the Great hoping to accomplish with his war on Sweden?

?b) According to Constantine de Grunwald, what was one action taken by Peter the Great to overcome his defeat at Narva?
… In 1722 the establishment of the
Table of Ranks
brought to its logical conclusion a process that had been evolving for three centuries. It imposed
obligatory
lifelong state service on all ranks of the nobility. It established fourteen
equivalent
grades in the military, naval, and civil service and required that even princes of the most
exalted
families should begin at the lowest grade and work their way up the ladder. The Table of Ranks offered the privileges of nobility to anyone who performed state service and made service to the state the principal basis for privilege.…

Source:
Peter Brock Putnam, Peter, The Revolutionary Tsar, Harper & Row, Publishers

?) According to Peter Brock Putnam, in what way did the introduction of the Table of Ranks attempt to reduce the influence of the old aristocracy?
… How great an effect did
Peter
have upon
Russia
? When he came to the throne, Russia was an
insignificant
state. He made it into a great power feared by all. At his
accession
[assumption of the throne] Russia had no armed forces except for the
inefficient
and untrustworthy
Streltsy
[hereditary military units]. When he died, there was a professional army of 210,000 men. He created a navy out of nothing, leaving behind him a fleet of forty-eight ships-of-the-line and many smaller
vessels
.…
Peter
signally
[noticeably] failed to create the large, thriving middle class that Russia needed. In spite of the most
strenuous
efforts, Russia’s
commerce
and
industry
remained dependent upon the Tsar, so that when he died, there were not enough wealthy, far-sighted traders and
industrialists
to develop what he had begun. This lack of private
initiative
and
enterprise
was to remain one of Russia’s greatest social weaknesses until the
Communist Revolution of 1917
.…

Source:
Michael Gibson, Peter the Great, Wayland Publishers

?) According to Michael Gibson, what were two effects Peter the Great’s rule had on Russia?
How
Louis
Kept the Nobles in Order

…That it might be
amusing
for the nobles to obey the king,
Louis
built a
splendid
new royal
residence
at
Versailles
, near
Paris
, where he
established
the most
brilliant
court ever known in Europe. The most
influential
nobles were encouraged, and even commanded, to leave their castles in the country, where life at best was dull, and to come and live with the king at Versailles. Here the king provided amusements for them, and here he could keep his eye on them. The nobles could not well be
discourteous
or
disobedient
to the king while they lived in his house and ate at his table. Almost without knowing it, Louis’s noble guests fell into the habit of trying to please him. The king’s manners were
imitated
, his words repeated. All smiled when the king smiled, all were sad when the king was sad, “all were
devout
when the king was devout, and all were sorry not to be ill when the king was ill.” If a noble at court displeased the king, he was sent back to the country to live in his own house, in which case everyone felt—and he did too—that he was in deep
disgrace
.…

Source:
Carl L. Becker, Modern History, Silver, Burdett and Company

?) According to Carl Becker, what was one way that Louis XIV attempted to control the nobility?
…More and more
Louis
tried to
impose

uniformity
in religious
affairs
. In the 1680s he
intensified

persecution
of
Protestants
; his actions made the
edict
[of Nantes] nothing but a scrap of paper. Finally, in 1685, he declared that the majority of French Protestants had been
converted
to
Catholicism
and that, therefore, there was no need for the edict. It was
revoked
. Now Louis launched a
reign of terror
. He refused to allow French Protestants to leave the country. He promised that those who remained could worship privately, free of
persecution
, but never kept the promise. Their churches were torn down, their gatherings forbidden, their children made to attend
mass
. The Waldensians in Savoy were massacred, and six hundred Protestants “caught making assemblies” were executed. Perhaps two hundred and fifty thousand fled
abroad
to escape persecution.…

Source:
Milton Meltzer, Ten Kings and the Worlds They Ruled, Orchard Books

?) According to Milton Meltzer, what was one action Louis XIV took in an attempt to control the Protestants in France?
In this excerpt, Barbara Tuchman is commenting on the effects of
Louis XIV
’s policy toward the
Huguenots
.

… Recent [1960s and 1970s]
scholarly studies
have concluded that the economic damage done to France by the Huguenot [French Protestants]
emigration
has been overrated, it being only one element in the larger damage caused by the wars. Of the political damage, however, there is no question. The flood of anti-French
pamphlets
and
satires
issued by Huguenot printers and their friends in all the cities where they settled aroused
antagonism
to France to new heat. The Protestant
coalition
against France was strengthened when
Brandenburg
entered into alliance with
Holland
, and the smaller German principalities joined. In France itself, the Protestant faith was
reinvigorated
by
persecution
and the
feud
with Catholics revived. A prolonged revolt of the Camisard Huguenots in the Cévennes, a mountainous region of the south, brought on a cruel war of
repression
, weakening the state. Here and among other Huguenot communities which remained in France, a
receptive
base was created for the Revolution to come.…

Source:
Barbara W. Tuchman, The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam, Alfred A. Knopf, 1984

?) According to Barbara Tuchman, what was one political consequence of Louis XIV’s policy toward the Huguenots?
One way Japanese feudalism during the Tokugawa shogunate was different from European feudalism is that during this period of Japanese feudalism...
(1) political power was more centralized
(2) foreign missionaries were welcomed
(3) emperors were overthrown in coups d’état
(4) most wealthy merchants were able to attain high social status
?)
Oliver Cromwell
led the
Puritan Revolution in England
in response to the
(1) passage of the Bill of Rights
(2) autocratic rule of the king
(3) implementation of mercantilism
(4) defeat of the Spanish Armada
?)
Peter the Great
is to Russia as Emperor Meiji is to
(1) Mongolia
(2) Japan
(3) India
(4) Korea
Here, a man is riding in a “fast
palanquin
,” gripping a strap for fear of falling off. The
bearers
of these palanquins would change at the
relay stations
, but the rider transmitting the message would
endure
the
grueling
ride until he reached his
destination
and could
transmit
his secret message in person.

Source:
Patricia J. Graham, “The Political and Economic Importance of the Tokaido,” To kaido : Adventures on the Road in Old Japan, University of Kansas Spencer Museum of Art

Perhaps the most crucial use of the road was for governmental communication with the provinces. Official messengers traveled by foot, horseback (in wartime), and palanquin. The government used a system of relays for messengers, with
reliefs
at every seven li [3.9 km].Government messengers had
priority
over any other type of traveler. They had first access to
ferries
at river crossings along the way, and could freely pass government road barriers at all times of the day or night. Private citizens were not allowed to travel at night; a series of barriers and checkpoints along the road kept them from doing so

?) According to Patricia J. Graham, what were two ways the Tokugawa controlled the use of the T-o-okaido Road?
The rule of Shi Huangdi, legalism, and the tomb of terra cotta soldiers are most closely associated with the
(1) Maurya Empire
(2) Qin dynasty
(3) Persian Empire
(4) Hellenistic culture
What was a major effect of the
Magna Carta
and the
English Bill of Rights
on Great Britain?
(1) The power of the monarch was limited.
(2) Ireland revolted against the monarchy.
(3) Parliament was abolished.
(4) A renewed interest in Greek and Roman culture developed.
…Their [
Ottoman
] aim was not
merely
political and military. For centuries Constantinople was the largest
metropolis
in the known world, the
impregnable
[unconquerable] core of a great[
Byzantine
] empire, served by a deep-water port that gave access to the sea. Known as New Rome and the Queen City, it had been built to impress, its magnificent public monuments, decorated with
statuary
set in an elegant classical urban landscape. Its apparent
invincibility
and famous reputation made it a great prize. The city was also
reputed
to be hugely wealthy. While the [Ottoman] Turks had no interest in its famous collection of Christian relics, the fact that many were made of solid gold and silver, decorated with huge gems and ancient
cameos
, was of importance. Their existence added weight to the rumour that Constantinople contained vast stores of gold, a claim which cannot have been true by 1453. By the early fifteenth century the city had lost all its provinces to Turkish occupation and was totally isolated. The surviving Greek territories of Trebizond and the Morea were similarly surrounded and made no effort to assist the ancient capital.…

Source:
Judith Herrin, “The Fall of Constantinople,” History Today, June 2003

?) According to Judith Herrin, what was one reason the Ottoman were interested in conquering the Byzantine capital of Constantinople?
Based on this illustration and time line, state one way the
Ottomans
attempted to expand their empire.
…The impact of [
Ottoman
]
Turkish rule
upon all sectors of
Balkan
society was
profound
. Most of its
aristocracy
were killed though a
minority
was
absorbed
into the ruling class when, in keeping with
Ottoman
practice, the
sultan
took over their lands. In contrast, the peasantry, who worked the land, paid most of the taxes and were
liable
for military service, were treated much better than before. They were protected by the new landlords and had their feudal services
abolished
. Apart from the frontier regions, most of the Balkans were spared that cultural and religious destruction usually associated with armies of occupation. Christians, though encouraged to convert to Islam, were allowed religious toleration and mixed marriages, and the
comparative freedom
and
contentment
enjoyed by its people is one of the most important explanations why the Balkans remained under Ottoman rule for over 400 years.…

Source:
Geoffrey Woodward, “The Ottomans in Europe,” History Review, March 2001

?) According to Geoffrey Woodward, what were two effects Ottoman rule had on Balkan society?
• Captured the city of Constantinople in 1453
• Benefited from rich trade along the Mediterranean Sea
• Ruled by
Suleiman the Lawgiver

Which empire best fits these descriptions?
(1) Roman
(2) Ottoman
(3) Mongol
(4) Songhai
Shi Huangdi believed in the 3 elements of "
legalism
"...
"Shi" = legitimacy, power, or charisma
A leader secures his power by understanding political trends and responds actively in order to maintain his
authority.
"Shu" = tactic
The leader's strategy is to keep his
motivations
and plans a secret from all others so that he cannot fall victim to
sabotage
by those who seek power.
"Fa" = Law
There must be a public law that is clear to all people and will be
consistently
enforced. This makes even a weak leader, strong.
Mughal imperial flag
Tokaido Road - Edo Five Routes
constructed in 1601 by Tokugawa Ieyasu
stretched from Edo (Tokyo) to Kyoto
united much of Japan
39:59 Making of a Shogun
allowed for increased trade
fast communication
collected tolls from travelers
swiftly move his armies to crush rebellions
Suleiman






controlled
SE Europe
Peter I r. 1682-1725





Peter the Great
Look at similarities
in these portraits...
Click the video box above to play...
Full transcript