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History of U.S. Education
Transcript of History of U.S. Education
Education of Native American Indian Slaves: 1542 (Global International)
Spanish emperor Charles V gave Catholic friars the job of educating Indian slaves in order to convert them to Christianity. Missions were established throughout America wherever Spanish holdings existed. Missions were communes where Native Americans were forced into slave labor for farming and other industries to maintain the self-sustainability of the mission. This brought a huge death and disease toll for the natives. Many missions had schools for religious indoctrination (Gaither, 2011).
British Colonies Established: 1607 (Global International)
Jamestown was the first permanent British colony established in the New World. The British came to America primarily to make money and to avoid religious persecution in England. There were three separate types of English immigrants, each of which settled in different regions of Eastern North America. These three distinguishing areas resulted in the differences in culture, politics, accent, values, voting patterns, etc. that we still see evident today. The differences overall contributed to varying regional development of education as well (Gaither, 2011).
Mandated Schooling: 1642 (Funding)
The first colony to pass a law for mandatory schooling was Massachusetts Bay. The primary purpose was to assure that children were being taught religious values as well as capital laws. There was a lack of action by citizens to uphold this law until the Old Deluder Satan law was passed in 1647. Also with this new law, Latin grammar school was established. Understanding Latin enabled students to understand the Bible and possibly become ministers. Fines were billed to those who did not educate their children in this way (Gaither, 2011).
Noah Webster’s Spelling book published: 1785 (Curriculum)
Grammatical Institute of the English Language by Noah Webster was completed. Further editions of this book lead to more American spelling of English words. This publication became the first American spelling book. Webster’s book provided writings that were patriotic and moralistic. It also created a national language curriculum. The blue-backed spelling book sold through the late 1800’s (Gaither, 2011).
2nd Great Awakening: 1790’s (Religion)
Evangelical movement led to the empowerment of women and the emerging of new denominations. Methodists and Baptists spoke with passion and great influence about human freedoms and God’s blessed guidance for the success of the United States. They believe that Christianity was the official religion of the country and living by the values set forth by the Bible would insure that. Sunday school for bible based education was emphasized to promote literacy along with moral values. (Gaither, 2011).
Vouchers: 2002 (Funding)
To accommodate closing the achievement gaps among schools and students of various demographics, school choice can be provided in the form of vouchers. The idea behind vouchers is to provide low-income families with a subsidy directly applied to paying to tuition at the private school of their choice. The laws concerning vouchers vary from state to state and city to city (Gaither, 2011).
No Child Left Behind: 2001
In 2001 Congress approved the No Child Left Behind act backed by President George W. Bush. Test scores were the basis for judging how effective or ineffective schools were. If schools were high scoring, they received financial rewards. Financial punishments were dealt to those schools poorly performing. Educators did not approve of test results being so decisive in determining the effectiveness of a school (Gaither, 2011).
Institute for the Deaf & Dumb: 1817 (Special Needs Disabled and Gifted)
Thomas H. Gallaudet helped found the Connecticut (later “American”) Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Person. Today this organizing is known as the American School for the Deaf. Galluadet brought manualism, sign language, back to the United States. This institution was funded by both private and public money. The federal government granted them 23,000 acres of land in Georgia, which they sold and used the proceeds to build in various locations (Gaither, 2011).
First High School opened: 1821 (Curriculum)
High schools attempted to compete with academies but they took a while to appeal to the majority. High schools were funded by tax dollars, so they were free to white citizens who qualified to attend. High schools became popular in urban areas but unfortunately, decades later many succumbed to disrepair and mismanagement (Gaither, 2011).
First female seminary: 1821
Women did not have options for formal teaching preparation until Emma Willard founded the first female seminary in Troy, New York. This became a leading national institution for college education and teaching preparation of female teachers. Many graduates also started seminaries of their own expanding down the coast as far as Georgia (Gaither, 2011).
Nat Turner Rebellion: 1831 (Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities)
After the Nat Turner rebellion, Southern Whites were in fear of Black rebellion during the time of increased tensions mounting concerning slavery. The fear of empowering the Black population lead to laws in the South being passed to restrict the educating of Blacks. Sadly, the North also had restrictions passed on Black education. Some educators bravely violated these laws to offer opportunity to Blacks though. The Black population also strived their own ways to skirt the law (Gaither, 2011).
Institute for the Blind: 1832 (Special Needs Disabled and Gifted)
Samuel Gridley Howe founded the first institute for the blind. A doctor friend of Gridley’s tasked him with studying French methods of education for the blind. After returning to the United States he ran a school for the blind from his home but later received grants from the State of Massachusetts. Gridley had an evangelical approach to fighting oppression and helping others. He took notice of how effective Braille was and began printing Braille books (Gaither, 2011).
Normal School founded: 1839 (Funding)
Federally funded education for preparing educators for the public school teaching profession was part of school reform in the 19th Century. The first normal school used for this purpose was founded in Massachusetts in 1839. Many were resistant to supporting this cause because of the great popularity of academies and high schools. The normal school began to gain ground by the 1870’s though (Gaither, 2011).
Immigration drastically increases: 1840-1880 (Religion)
A major increase in the immigration of Irish Catholics and Germans took place in the mid 1800’s. Urban areas became impacted and tenser with the meshing of religious cultures. Protestants already living in these areas hoped that free common school education would teach these new immigrants better morals and behaviors to exist more peacefully. The Germans were generally more educated that the Irish so were seen as less of a problem; besides Germans already supported the government taking the lead on education (Gaither, 2011).
Horace Mann’s 10th Annual Report- 1846 (Funding)
Horace Mann did an extensive study on the schools in Massachusetts and throughout Europe to create a report in support of common schools. He laid out the many advantages of free education to all with the purpose being social control combined with public support. As a reformer, he stressed that for class distinction to have less impact all schools must be free and excellent. He won over the support of the majority of people and laid the foundation for free public school supported by tax dollars for all (Gaither, 2011).
1st U.S. Kindergarten founded by Froebel & Schurz: 1856 (Curriculum)
Friedrich Froebel and Margarethe Schurz founded the first kindergarten in the United States in 1856. Froebel was a German teacher who believed in the concept of learning while playing. By the 1870’s kindergarten became part of the public school systems. The United States excitedly accepted the concept for this age group. Later, other countries also embraced kindergarten and it spread rapidly throughout the world (Gaither, 2011).
Originally the National Education Association was founded for male educators to debate educational curriculum and policies. More women began to join this group as the number of female teachers increased. Ella Flagg Young was the first female president of the NEA elected in 1910. She had a doctorate in education and was superintendent of Chicago school system by 1909 (Gaither, 2011).
Tuskegee Institute: 1881 (Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities)
Booker T. Washington was Samuel Chapman Armstong’s protege who opened the industrial training school the Tuskegee Institute. White financial backers backed these schools in order to provide industrial education that would produce and obedient workers. Another function of this school was to train common school teachers. The knowledge that African American students gained from these schools was not necessarily just used as intended by their White financial backers (Gaither, 2011).
Invention of Brailler: 1890 (Technology)
The invention of the Brailler enbabled typing in Braielle. This invention was a major step in helping the literacy rate of the blind. The Brailler has raised dots on its six keys and proved to be an extremely useful tool for the advancement of communication and expression for the blind. By 1917 the Brailler had been adopted world wide at most institutions for the blind (Gaitther, 2011).
Committee of Ten Report: 1893
During the Progressive Era ten members comprised a committee all of which were traditionalists networked in higher education. Their suggested curriculum focused on college prep priority whether a student was planning to attend college or not. By 1918 Progressives presented another option stressing the importance of vocational training, being healthy, and government (Gaither, 2011).
Radio Broadcasting: 1910 (Technology)
The spread of radio broadcasting was prevalent in the 1910’s through the 1920’s. There were many attempts to provide educational programs over radio airwaves. These attempts were not met with great success and ultimately failed when commercial interests began to dominate control over the airwaves. There simply wasn’t enough investment in the radio broadcasting method from university faculties (Moore & ERIC, 2003).
Indian New Deal: 1934 (Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities)
This was a revised policy under the Indian Reorganization Act. Lands were resorted to tribal ownership. Indian children would attend school on their reservations. Government money was given for improving schools on reservations but by 1953 this funding was cut causing the underfunded schools to go downhill. School quality suffered; only the schools still funded by the government or connected to support outside the reservation remained functional (Gaither, 2011).
Brown –vs- the Board of Education: 1954 (the Legal System)
Oliver Brown, et al., v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas was a class-action law suit. Four Southern states were named specifically pointing out segregated educational facilities that were not by definition equal. The NAACP had previous cases from the Supreme Court level determining this was unconstitutional. Decisions were deliberate and very clear although the understanding of the law was still subject to interpretation. However, this sparked the successful beginning of the civil rights movement (Gaither, 2011).
National Defense Education Act: 1958 (Curriculum)
The United States Federal Government took action to boost interest in technology. The urgency was directly related to the fact that the Soviet Union was the first to launch a satellite into space, Sputnik. Many panicked and viewed their success as U.S. inferiority. The NDEA imparted a more prevalent role for federal government in education. The push in public education was to improve the science and math skills of our youth. The efforts made in restructuring curriculum and methods became obsolete in the next decade (Gaither, 2011).
Civil Rights Act of 1964: 1964 (the Legal System)
Southern states continued to resist integration and the NAACP continued to fight all resistance legally. Federal courts ruled against segregation while the federal government worked on drawing up more legislation to not only protect all individuals for equal education, but for equal rights in all areas. Finally the Civil Rights Act of 1964 achieved the goal. It would take a few more years of struggle to become reality (Gaither, 2011).
Open Classrooms: 1968 (Curriculum)
The less structured setting of open classrooms was explored from 1968-1974. The classroom setting was that of no barriers or boundaries. Kids could roam freely at will around the class from station to station. The idea of the report card was done away with. The open classroom experimental school was opened in North Dakota but did not have long-term success. After the liberal experiences of the 1960’s and 70’s, educators and parents had the opinion that a more controlled setting with rules was more productive (Gaither, 2011).
Bilingual Education Act: 1968 (Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities)
In 1968 the United States Congress passed the Bilingual Education Act. The law provided federal aid for bilingual education programs that encouraged states to consider providing them. In 1974, the Supreme Court ruled that this Act must be mandated, not simply encouraged, because those states not providing it were putting their Latino students at a disadvantage (Gaither, 2011).
Rulings for disability issues: 1971-1972 (Special Needs Disabled and Gifted)
For two years legal action verified the constitutional rights of the disabled. The case of Wyatt v. Stickney stated that the disabled have the right to treatment. PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania agreed that the disabled have the right to education in a normal setting with whatever special assistance they need. Mill v. Board of Education was concerned with the funding for the free education of the disabled even if there were exceptional, above and beyond needs. Finally, Public Law 94-142 was passed guaranteeing that all handicapped would receive education (Gaither, 2011).
Keyes –vs- School District: 1973 (the Legal System)
In an effort for Latinos to be a distinguished ethnic culture they began to organize the cause for their civil rights. Part of their legal movement was the desire to be seen as a brown race of people, not black or white. In Keyes v. School District the Supreme Court did state that Latinos suffer the same situation as Blacks in that the education being provided was not equal to Whites. The movement of the Latinos was not necessarily to be integrated but to maintain pride in their culture and language (Gaither, 2011).
First Graphic Calculator Introduced: 1986 (Technology)
Casio introduced the first graphic calculator in 1986. This introduction lead to most United States Algebra and Calculus textbooks to be presented in a way that fully assumed that each student would be using the graphic calculator to solve and check problems. Because they were inexpensive and easy to hold, they easily became the first mobile computer device that many of our youth owned. The graphic calculator soon became the better tool over paper and pencil although manual paper and pencil skills are still needed and part of curriculum (Waits & Demana, 1998).
IDEA: 1990 (Special Needs Disabled and Gifted)
IDEA: 1990 (Special Needs Disabled and Gifted)
The previous name of this law was the Education of All Handicapped Children Act. The word Handicapped became Disabilities hence the acronym IDEA. Revisions also came along1997 with parental responsibilities to communicate concerns directly with schools rather than outside agencies or lawyers. In 2004 the word Improvement was added to the title and IDEA had a more involved role with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. IDEA set guidelines for special education teachers to be highly qualified and credentialed. More accountability for yearly progress was required as well (Gaither, 2011).
First Web Browser Released: 1993 (Technology)
Mosaic, the first internet Web browser was released. This provided opportunities for teachers and students to learn through programs on the World Wide Web. Access in this capacity was revolutionary in promoting distance education as well. Research has expanded to unlimited possibilities. This development also changed testing or assessment and has lead the way to on line education (Moore & ERIC, 2003).
History of Education in America
Gaither, M. (2011) History of American education. San Diego, CA: Bridgepointe Education, Inc.
Moore, M., & ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, C. H. (2003). From Chautauqua to the Virtual University: A Century of Distance Education in the United States. Information Series.
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Author Unknown, Google Images & Wikipedia.com
(Bilingual Education Photo Author Unknown, 1971. Google Images. Academic.Evergreen.EDu)
(Brady, date unknown)
(Brailler, Author unknown, shop.aph.org)
(Emma Willard, biography.com, 2013)
(Ewing & Harris, 2010)
(George-W-Bush, 2008, liberapedia.com)
(Greater Parkhill Community, 2008)
(Horace Mann, 2013, biography.com)
(Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1533)
(National Education Association Logo, en.wikipedia.org)
(NEA Archives and Corbis, 2006)
(Old Graphing Calulator, 2009, anyons6-post.blogspot.com
(School Segregation Banned, 1954, crescentok.com)
(Thomas Gallaudet, 2013, biography.com)
(NAACP Records, myloc.gov)