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Unit 3 test

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Chance Williams

on 13 October 2016

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Transcript of Unit 3 test

Compare diffusion and osmosis. Why are they important processes in organisms?

Diffustion is the driving force behind the movement of many substances across the cell membrane.

Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

These processes are important to keep the cells alive and homeostasis triggers the cells to allow osmosis.
What happens in the light dependent reaction and the light independent reaction during photosynthesis?
Light dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into energy carriers ATP and NADPH.

Chlorophyl absorbs light that excites electrons.
Water breaks down releasing oxygen.
Electrons go onto electron stansport train and make ATP.
Hydrogen combines with NADPT to make NADPH

Light independent reaction- ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars.
Describe and give the products of mitosis.

Mitosis is a process where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells

Mitosis is divided into five phases:
1. Interphase:
The DNA in the cell is copied in preparation for cell division, this results in two identical full sets of chromosomes.

2. Prophase:
The chromosomes condense into X shaped structures that can be easily seen under a microscope.
Each chromosome is composed of two sister chromosomes, containing identical genetic information.
the membrane around the nucleus in the cell dissolves away releasing the chromosomes. The Chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell.
3. Metaphase:
The chromosomes line up along the center of the cell.
The chromosomes are now at opposite poles of the cell with the mitotic spindle fibers extending from them.
The mitotic spindle fibers attach to each of the sister chromosomes.
4. Anaphase:
The sister chromosomes are then pulled apart by the mitotic spindle which pulls one chromosomes to one pole and the other chromosomes to the opposite pole.
5. Telophase:
At each pole of the cell a full set of chromosomes gather together.
A membrane forms around each set of chromosomes to create two new nuclei.
The single cell then pinches in the middle to form two separate daughter cells each containing a full set of chromosomes within a nucleus. This process is known as cytokinesis.
Compare active transport and facilitated diffusion.
Compare asexual and sexual reproduction. What are the roles of each in a organism.
Asexual reproduction is the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent.

Sexual reproduction is the offspring produced by sexual reproduction inherit some of their genetic information from each parent.

Compare cellular respiration and fermentation.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into ATP, and then release waste products. It can create 36 ATP.

Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. This creates 2 ATP.
Unit 3 test
Chance williams

Facilitated diffusion is the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins. Being passive, facilitated transport does not directly require chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis in the transport step itself; rather, molecules and ions move down their concentration gradient.

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration -- in the direction against some gradient or other obstructing factor. Unlike passive transport, which uses the kinetic energy and natural entropy of molecules moving down a gradient, active transport uses cellular energy to move them against a gradient, polar repulsion, or other resistance. Active transport is usually associated with accumulating high concentrations of molecules that the cell needs, such as ions, glucose and amino acids.
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