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Transcript of Roman Weapons
AH English II
1/14/13 Weapons Works Cited Pilum It is said that the Pilum could be thrown to 98 yards, but is most likely effective from around 50-60 yards The Gladius The Gladius is short sword used for close combat Worn on the right side for easy access Usually 18-24 inches in length (50 cm) Was the standard Roman weapon until around 150 A.D. Pilum Short range artillery weapon Measured 2 meters in length (about 7 feet) The Pilum was thrown so that it would slice through the enemy's shield and hit the enemy Throwing Spear 2 1 The pilum is a large javelin with long, thin iron neck. At the top of the Pilum, there is a heavy shaft resembling a pyramid Soldiers normally carried two Pilums during battle Gladius Sharp edges and a sharp, pointed end The hilt of the Gladius, also known as the capulus, had 4 ridges for the fingers to sit on. This was the ideal design to enable a tight grip on the sword The design of the hilt showed the rank of officer using the sword Spatha The spatha was a sword longer than the Gladius Ranged from 30-39 inches in length The Spatha was worn on the left hip, unlike the Gladius Primary sword of the Roman Calvary (horseback) Spatha The spatha was used during Roman wars, as well as the Gladiator games Gladius The Gladius was used by Roman foot soldiers Gladius is primarily a stabbing sword The spatha had a flat blade The point of the spatha was much smaller than that of the Gladius, but was still sharp enough to cut through enemy flesh The word 'Spatha' comes from the greek word spáthe which refer to any broad blade that is metallic or wooden. it also refers to an object that is long, as well as flat The spatha had wooden handles designed to help the soldiers have a strong grip on the Spatha Spatha That spatha is said to have German origin Pilum The Pilum weighed around 2-4 kilograms (around 7 pounds) which made it the heaviest javelin used by the Romans Even if the enemy was unharmed, the Pilum hit the shield as to make it unusable. The enemy would have to throw the shield away and continue the battle unprotected If the enemy could get the Pilum from the shield, the head would be bent inward, and would be useless Hasta Hasta is latin for 'spear' Hasta Unlike the Pilum, which was a javelin intended to be thrown at long distances, the Hasta was a spear intended to hit the enemy violently. The Hasta could severely injure the enemy if hit with enough force Showed useful for attacking the calvary of the enemy The Hasta measured 2 meters long (6.5 feet) The long wooden shaft was generally made from an ash tree The head was made from iron, and had a triangular shape with a pointed end Pugio Pugio The Pugio was a small dagger used as a sidearm by the Roman soldiers Most likely a weapon carried to the battlefield for protction when the soldiers ran out of weapons The pugio had a broad blade resembling a leaf The blade was 7-11 inches long and 2 inches wide The pugio has a raised midrib that runs the full length of the blade. This allows the blade to be thinner and sharper on the edges, and thicker in the middle The hilt of the Pugio was most often wooden or metallic and often was engraved with designs The hilt was 4-5 inches long with a narrow grip that enabled the soldiers to pull it of their sidearm with ease and force The cover for the Pugio was made of leather or wood that was covered with embellished metal plates Plumbatae Plumbatae were darts used by the Roman infantry Had sharp, pointed heads that could cut through the enemy's shield Weight was added to the middle of the Plumbatae with lead so that the plumbatae would have more impact when thrown at the enemy Soldiers normally carried 12 that were attached to the back of their shield Had a range of 30 meters Contus The contus was a heavy lance used by the Roman calvary It was 4-5 meters (about 13 feet) and had to be carried with two hands because of its weight It was used as a stabbing weapon, or could be used as a javelin that they would throw at the enemy The contus had a heavy iron head with a sharp point, and a long wooden shaft Head of a contus Ballista The ballista is an artillery weapon designed like a powerful crossbow Soldiers would fire iron tipped bolts toward the enemy Once fired, the bolts traveled at around 50 meters per second Because of the great force they were fired at, the bolts could go directly through armor and instantly kill the enemy Caltrop Armour Armour The onager was the most powerful piece of Roman artillery The onager has a swinging arm equipped with a sling at the end of the arm in which rocks were placed It could fire rocks up to 150 pounds with great force The onager was used to propel rocks at a specific target to knock down walls and fortifications The caltrop was used to injure the animals, as well as, the infantry of the enemy A caltrop was made of 4 nails attached to a base which assured that one of the nails would stick straight up at all times The Roman soldiers would scatter them on the battlefield, and inflicted injury on the enemy's horses, elephants, or foot soldiers This bought the Roman legionaries more time for planning Helmet (Cassis) On the front of the helmet, there is a bill-like protrusion 3 inches above the rim . The bill protects the soldier from head injury during the battle. The back of the helmet has a guard that protects the back of the neck from a sword blow Body Armour The body armour consist of overlapping iron strips that are hooked together with hooks and laces on the front. On the back of the armour, the iron strips were hinged together. These were held together by strips of leather on the inside of the armour. The armour allowed the soldier to be well protected, and flexible. The shoulders were covered by curved pieces of iron Shield (Scutum) The shield was shaped like a semi-circle. This designed deflected missiles thrown at the soldier to one side The shield was worn on the left side of the body Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. 14 Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place, 15 and with your feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace. 16 In addition to all this, take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. 17 Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. Ephesians 6: 13-17 Based off of the Roman Armor "Ancient Roman Weapons." AncientMilitary.com. Ancient Military. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. "Ancient Roman Weapons." Weapons Universe. Weapons Universe Corporation. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. Barrow, Mandy. "Weapons." Roman Soldiers Weapons and Equipment. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. "File: Roman Calvary 2.jpg." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 Jan. 2013. "Medieval Weapons and Armour." Medieval Warfare. Medieval Warfare Resources. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. Pillai, Maya. "Ancient Roman Weapons." Buzzle. Buzzle.com. 17 Dec. 2012. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. "Roman Swords." Sword History. WordPress. 25 Aug. 2011. Web. 11 Jan. 2013. "Rune Hasta." Rune Scape Wiki. Wikia. 27 July 2007. Web. 12 Jan. 2013. The Full Life Study Bible. Donald Stamps. Michigan: Zondervan, 1992. Print. Onager