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The Result of Philippine-American War Report
Transcript of The Result of Philippine-American War Report
FRIAR LANDS FILIPINIZATION OF THE CHURCH AGLIPAY BECOMES MILITARY
VICAR GENERAL NOZALEDA EXCOMMUNICATES
AGLIPAY MABINI AND THE NATIONAL CHURCH THE NATIONAL CHURCH OPPOSITION TO FILIPINIZATION THE SEPARATION FROM ROME CONVERTS TO THE NEW CHURCH ATTEMPTS TO WIN BACK AGLIPAY CONSECRATION OF AGLIPAY AS BISHOP IMPORTANCE OF THE NEW CHURCH Gregorio Aglipay - was a Catholic priest turned revolutionary who eventually established the Philippine Independent Church upon realizing the futility of going back to the Catholic fold.
“The Revolutionary Government”, is supporting us in our aims because it cannot recognize as head of the Filipino clergy in the Spanish Bishop, for the powerful political influence of the clergy in the Spanish Government is proverbial. October 22, 1898, Aglipay urged the Filipino priest to recognize themselves so as to occupy all vacant parishes.
Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda asked Aglipay to confront the revolutionary leaders, offering them a level of autonomy for the Philippines if they would end the rebellion. May 5, 1899 Archbishop Nozaleda excommunicated Aglipay from the Roman Catholic Church since he joined the revolution and sent a letter to various clergy asking them to ask the Pope to appoint Filipinos in all local church positions.
Aglipay, accused Nozaleda of starving the Filipino masses and of collaborating with the Americans Aglipay was irritated upon learning that he was proclaimed Supreme Bishop of the New Church. He was at the time conferring with the Spanish Jesuit in the Jesuit House at Santa Ana, Manila
They invited Aglipay to a conference at the Jesuit house though Leon Ma Guerrerro and Joaquin Luna
They persuade Aglipay to return to the Catholic Church. On the fifth day of the conference between them, the latter asked Aglipay to sign a document which was a confession of Catholic faith
Aglipay studied the document and refused to sign it From the first phase of the revolution (1896-1998 against Spain) to the second phase (1898-1902 against the U.S), owning a piece of land, in addition to independence, was a major goal of the struggle.
The revolutionary government in Malolos confiscated the friar lands, but these went to those who could present security in cash or kind. As a result, these lands were awarded to the ilustrados and families with means. The peasants, who tilled small spots before losing these to the various religious orders, did not get their share. When the Treaty of Paris was signed, where Spain ceded the Philippines to the U.S. for $20M, huge tracts of church lands amounting 422,000 acres became the property of the U.S colonial government. But the friars protested and demanded for repossession of their land.
Governor Taft quickly negotiated with the Vatican for the forced sale of the estates to the U.S. with the possibility of reselling the friar’s lands to American corporations. In subsequently years, the Filipino elite, along with American businessmen, would be able to buy these estates as a reward for their cooperation and support to the newly established U.S. colonial regime.
The peasants, who fought and from whose ranks thousands had died since 1896, remained poor and landless. January 1900, the new Apostolic Delegate to the Philippines, Monsignor Placido Chapelle, an American, arrived in Manila. Instead of sympathizing with Filipino priests, he announced that those who opposed the Spanish friars were the enemies of religion and public order.
He threatened the Filipino priests by saying that he would dominate them by force because, he explained, he was the Pope’s delegate to the Philippines, on one hand, and an American, on the other. He also said that the heads of the revolutionary leaders should be chopped off. He added that the Filipino priests were incompetent and therefore, fit to occupy only menial positions in the church. According to Mabini, the Filipino National Church be established was hailed by the Filipino clergy.
The time had come for the Filipino priests to assert their right not only occupy parishes, but also high positions in the church and thus, manage it. Aglipay, on October 23, 1899 called a meeting of Filipino priests in Paniqui, Tarlac wherein he said that the Catholic Church in the Philippines should be Filipinized. The Iglesia Filipina Indepediente, popularly known as the AGLIPAYAN CHURCH, was a CHILD OF THE REVOLUTION. As such it was inline with the nationalistic spirit that dominated the Filipino patriots who fought not only for political, but also for religious independence. Just as the revolution was a violent reaction to Spanish injustices, the Aglipayan movement was a reaction to the Spanish refusal to recognize the right of the Filipino priests to administer the catholic church in the Philippines.
That many of the Filipino priests dared to join the movement to be independent from Rome was the proof that they, too, were patriotic like their countrymen in arms against Spain and later against the United States. For more than 300 years, the Spanish priest in the Phil. ignored the Filipino clergy and considered them incapable of holding high positions in the church. This discrimination was quashed by the Filipino priests inspired by GOMBURZA and headed by AGLIPAY, who showed their capacity to administer parishes and manage the church.
By founding the Phil. Independent Church, Aglipay and his companions actualized a centuries-old goal of vibrant and dynamic FIlipinism. AGLIPAYAN CHURCH ( Iglesia Filipina Indeoendiente) -story of birth is a great extent to story of struggle of Filipino clergy to Filipinize the Catholic Church in the Philippine Father Gomez, Burgos and Zamora (GomBurZa)
-their Filipinization movement was twenty-six years earlier.
- The controversy was clearly racial in character
-They sided with the government during the Katipunan Revolution. 2nd Part of the revolution was began when Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines in 1898.
Fr. Gregorio Aglipay
-A Filipino secular priest who sympathized with Spain.
-He was sent to persuade the revolutionary leaders especially General Artemio Ricarte, Mariano Trias and Emiliano Riego de Dios to side with the Spaniards against the American.
Archibishop Bernardino Nozaleda
-Urged Aglipay to investigate the condition of the parishes The Filipino priests felt insulted and as a result, the closed ranks and continued to work for the Filipinization of the Church in the Philippines.
-2 Filipino priest, Jose Chanco and Salustiano Araullo appeared before the Pope and told his Holiness about the problem of the Filipino clergy. In Spain:
-Isabelo de los Reyes, a Filipino writer and scholar angrily demanded the establishment of a Filipino Church independent of Rome.
-He said that “ Let us now form, without vacillation our own congregation, a Filipino Church, conserving what is good in the Roman Church...” -He returned to Manila in 1901 and founded the first labor union and called it Union Obrera Democratica ( Democratic Labor Union)
-He suggested the establishment of a Filipino Church Independent of Rome with Aglipay as the Supreme Bishop.
-New church was called Iglesia Filipina Independiente ( Philippine Independent Church) Being a patriot and a nationalist, Mabini, who no longer held a government position, was vacationing in Rosales, Pampanga, where he issued a manifesto on October 22, 1899 urging the Filipino priests to establish a National Church. It was to be a catholic but under the control and supervision of Filipino priests. According to Mabini in his manifesto to the Filipino clergy:
Let the Filipino clergy show their zeal and love for the Church; let them show their capacity to govern not only the parishes but also the diocese; let them show that the regular orders are not needed in the Philippines to maintain alive the faith in the Catholic religion, and the pope who cannot separate from justice as a vicar of Christ who is God has to recognize the rights and merits of the Filipino priests. This is the most opportune occasion which Divine Providence offers them to obtain the reparation of their grievances: those who aspire to be something more than mere coadjutors and pages must not let this occasion pass. Isabelo de los Reyes
made a list of what he considered to be sympathizers of the new Church. He included in his list such “big” names as Fernando Ma. Guerrero,
Martin Ocampo, Trinidad H. Pardo deTavera, Manuel Artigas Priests such as, Adriano Garces Jorge Barlin Toribio Dominguez These men were not hostile to the new church, but they were not prepared to join it either. Aglipay's disillusionment with Fr. Foradada gave him the excuse to accept the position of Supreme Bishop of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente.
October 1, 1902 -he presided over the meeting of the new council which was summoned to frame a constitution for the new church. October 26 1902 - he celebrated his first mass as supreme bishop.
January 18, 1903 -he was consecrated Supreme Bishop by the bishops of Cagayan, Pangasinan, Isabela, Abra, Neuva Ecija, Cavite and Manila
1910 - another attempt to win Aglipay to the Catholic fold was made.
F. Theo Rogers - publisher of Philippine Free Press
F. Joaquin Villalonga - had a heart to heart talk with Aglipay Rev. Fr. Santiago Poacier - refused to return to the Roman Catholic Fold.
" The Philippine Independent Church will live on, and neither the Pope nor the Jesuits will be able to impede it. Aglipay will live and die as poor as when he was born but he will never betray the interest of his people."