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GCE Product Design - 3D

Theory Support for Units 1 & 3 GCE Product Design 3D

Victoria Jackson

on 30 May 2015

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Transcript of GCE Product Design - 3D

Polymers, composites and compliant
GCE Product Design - 3D
Section B

Section A

Design & Market

Section C
Process &

continues to
constantly develop.
Products are superseded
almost as soon as they are launched. The past 80 years have shown the most significant development

1940's & 1950's
1980 plus
available in the 1920's.
Due to early electronics
such as thermionic valves, resistors and capacitors they
were very expensive - the equivalent of a couple of months wages although by today's standard the signal would have been very poor
Radios were
being made from
newly developed
plastics such as Bakelite
for knobs and dials
thermosetting polymer
About this time the transistor was introduced. This revolutionised the electronics industry as they needed considerable less power allowing the number of components to be reduced and allowing the use of batteries.

The miniturisation of electronic components began as technology evolved from copper wires to circuit boards
The sound quality was improving by the 1960's. The cases were being made much more cheaply so were very often covered in a mock leather fabric to
improve its aesthetics
By the 1970's
the increased use
of thermoplastics such
as acrylic and ABS. There
introduction allowed the
process of injection moulding to be used in the manufacture of the radio case.

The increased minaturisation of the electronic components allowed the sizes to continue to reduce
Integrated circuits were being more commonly used that required less power so smaller power supplies
were needed.

Some radios were small
enough to fit in your
introduction of the
microchip in the 70's revolutionised the
electronic industry.

Aerials were replaced by the wires to the headphones.
GUI (graphical user interface) LCD (liquid crystal display)

The microchip gives us the ability to shuffle songs
Sound quality continues to evolve as does every
element of
The development
of the MP3
MP3 is a method of audio file compression. When MP3's were first launched in the 90's they were slow to take off, tapes and CD's kept the population happy! It wasn't until personal computers and the internet became more widespread that MP3 started to catch the eye of the consumer.
Between 1990 and 2003 most downloads were illegal! Apple launched i-tunes music store, this made legitimate music downloads available and significantly contributed to the ipod being one of the most popular electronic devices of all time
The Battery
Batteries are made up essentially of two electrodes in an electrolyte. They can be acids, alkalines or salts.
Technological Developments
and the TV
Televisions have been around for nearly 100 years. The most common type was analogue which has recently been replaced by digital. This has allowed an image that is more stable with very high resolution. HDTV is now also common
Technological development in the telephone
The telephone has been around since 1876. It started life as a series of dots and dashes. Telephones were wired to each other rather than a network.
By 1900 telephones were becoming slightly portable.
In the 1920's bakelite enables new shapes to be developed. By the 1960;s other polymers were being used
By the 1970's and 80's microchip technology was on the up and this again impacted technology Cordless phones were introduced in the 80's via an analogue signal, digital started to take over in the 90's
The Impact
of ICT
Mechanics to Electronics




Intelligent Systems
and Interlinked Products
Technology now allows products to communicate with each other

We have the freedom to work, exchange information, shop or simply keep in touch while
on the move
ICT and
the Internet
The internet was originally devised to allow communication to carry on in despite of a nuclear attack in the 1960's. The public face of the internet was invented by a scientist in 1989 when he was looking for a better way to share and communicate his ideas, so he used hypertext.
The internet evolves everyday,
Radio Frequency Identification Tags

Electronic tags that can be attached to products that contain information
They are robust
They can be scanned from a distance
Active tags have their own power supply - smart shelves can read the tag as a product is removed and automatically maintain the stock levels
Fluidic self assembly
Nanoblocks (tiny circuits) floated in a suspension liquid. This is spread over a substrate that has holes in its surface matching the shape of the circuit.
These settle and self align
It makes it possible to manufacture flat screen monitors and HDTV screens
We have discussed minaturisation of electronics. Nanotechnology involves working on materials at the atomic level - Nanotechnology can be defined as the manipulation and rearrangement of individual atoms to create useful materials, systems and devices
Inflation of airbags, lightness in materials , durability of bumpers, easier to paint

Stain resistance, water repellent

Electrical goods
Screens, conductivity

bone substitutes, water fileters, operations
Product Life Cycles
Life Cycle Factors
Changes in materials and technology
Changes in consumer demand
What the product is
How technically complex the product is
This is when the product is released - there will be initial costs and profit will be minimal until product launches and becomes recognisable and popular by the consumer
As advertising takes effect and consumers see the benefits - sales start to rise - steady increase in profits
At this point competitors will start to launch similar products
Sales begin to level off - competitors are making sales
At this point, developed products are released building on the original or superseding it
The market is saturated - everyone that wanted one, has one!!!
Companies decide now to take reduced profits or discontinue the product
Companies will then hope that the technology push will take over
To maintain a steady volume of sales
To maintain market advantage
Technology push
Companies deliberately keep their product life cycle short - they supersede them before they need to - they persuade you, you need a better one

Built in Obsolescence - products that can only be used once - syringes, keeping costs low -
such as making cars from more durable
materials would raise costs
A study of manufactured
products and systems
Appraisal of functional, aesthetic, technical and economic considerations in the design and manufacture of products, considering aspects of their physical surroundings as shaped by designers, craftsmen and technologists
otherwise known as
Product Analysis
(same thing just different
The Influence of
Design and Technology
in Society
Role of the Designer
The Marketing Function
How Designing starts
When an existing design proves to be unsatisfactory
To make money

Wanting to help others
Exploration of Science and technology
The design process you know like the back of your hand - its the order of your coursework
2D/3D Sketching
Orthographic Projection
3D & Computer
Presentation Boards
Health & Safety
Risk Assessment
Safety legislation and manufacturing
Customer safety
Safety &
Safety Legislation
The British Standards Institution is an organisation that documents UK national standards for quality and safety in products and services. BSI also represents the UK in European (CEN) and international (ISO) standards production.
Companies can pay to have their products tested against national or international standards, and if they meet the standard requirements, and their production processes have been assessed and comply with regulations, they can be awarded the BSI Kitemark. The company is issued a licence to use the Kitemark on its products.
This symbol of quality and safety helps to assure consumers they are buying a safe and consistent product.
Companies registered with BSI have their product and their production process regularly tested.
= a document assessing the type of hazard, the level of risk and who be affected by the hazard.
It contains a description of control measures that will be taken to minimise the risk associated with using specific materials and manufacturing processes.
Risk Assessment Example
Risk assessments can be applied to both the design and manufacture of products, and the outcome of these risk assessments can determine things such as the physical appearance, the materials, components and finishes used, the method of manufacture and consumer advice issued with products.
A document assessing
the type of hazard,
the level of risk,
who might be affected by the hazard.
a description of control measures taken to minimise the risk associated with using specific material and manufacturing processes.
Health & Safety Executive (
What they are =A government advisory service that helps companies meet health and safety obligations under the Health and Safety at Work Act.
What they do = The HSE publishes safety posters, books and copies of specific Health and Safety legislation. Local HSE officers visit employees to check they are complying with regulations and to investigate accidents.
The CE mark

The European Community Directive
Products that meet the relevant EU directives can display the CE mark. It mns that the product can be sold in the EU. Manufactuers wishing to display the CE mark on their proeucts usually have them tested by the BSI. On passing the tests they can display both symbols and assure consumers that they are buying safe product
The CE mark

The European Community Directive
Products that meet the relevant EU directives can display the CE mark.
It means that the product can be sold in the EU.
Manufactures wishing to display the CE mark on their products usually have them tested by the BSI. On passing the tests they can display both symbols and assure consumers that they are buying safe product
There is specific legislation to protect employees involved in manufacturing. The ones are the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the Personal Protective Clothing Regulations 2002, and the
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations COSHH
2002. Generally this legislation is design to protect employees in the workplace.

Under this legislation, employers are generally obliged to do the following:

Make the workplace safe and free from risks to health
Ensure machinery is sage and sage working practices are followed.
Ensure dangerous items and substances are removed and stored safely
Provide sufficient welfare facilities
Provide information, training and supervision as necessary for health and safety.
Safety in Manufacture

Employees undertake safety courses and are tested against Health & Safety Executive (HSE)

Guarding of machines
Most machines under HSE regulations are guarded to prevent employees hurting themselves. Cutting, pressing, exposure to UV

Job rotation
To stop RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury) employees can be rotated to another production process.

Protective clothing
Overalls, dust masks , safety boots, goggles.

Dust extraction is particulary important when machining composites such as MDF, carbon fibre reinforced plastic.

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health

Risk Assessments
A calculation of how hazardous a process is compared to injury and frequency.

Regulations dealing with the safe handling, use and storage of hazardous materials.
Safety and the User
There are a range of consumer protection law determined and enforced by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the European Union.

The Trading Standards Agency is responsible for the day to day enforcement of consumer safety law. Trading Standards officers have the power to remove unsafe products from the market and prosecute offenders.

The EU have put in place a number of Product Directives e.g.
General product safety
Toy safety
Noise emission from domestic products
Low voltage electrical equipment

Exam Question
Consumer safety is a vital consideration in product design.
For one of the following, explain what issues must be considered to ensure safe use of the product.
Electric drill
Hair straighteners
Desk lamp
(10 marks)
The Work of
Past and Present
Arts & Crafts
1929 - 1945
Art Noveau
Post Modernism
Pop Art
Designers of the 21st Century
Late 19th Century in Britain Victorian
Age/Industrial Revolution

Nostalgic return to simple, honest craftsmenship that was once available

Victorian Age, great ornamentation and decoration

For manufacturers, decoration allowed an object to look more expensive than it really was

For customers, elaborate decoration symbolised respect, and therefore wealth in an age where the financial system was dependent on trust
Forms were taken from nature

Curvy, feminine, sensual, inspired from insects, flowers, birds
Part 1
Influenced by a set of principles
'form follows function' a product should function well and its appearance should be influenced by what it does

'Everyday objects for everyday people' products should be affordable for everyone

'Products for a machine age' products should be designed to be made using modern materials in mechanised processes

'geometrically pure forms' design should be vertical, horizontal, organised using
basic tones

Part 2
Standardisation & Mass Production

Industrial revolution, technological revolution and modern materials like cast iron

Britain led the way in mass production machinery

Wedgewoods factory was one of the first for mechanisation of the pottery industry

USA specialised in division of labour (different people doing different jobs to achieve speed, efficiency and standaridisation/interchangeable parts (Ford Model T replaced horse and cart)

Colt revolver made from machined parts
Part 3

Industrial design was born

Advertisers, illustrators, engineers, products were promoted and distinguishable

What is streamlining?
Speed and efficiency, time/energy saving

How is it achieved in a product?
Smooth curves, rounded edges, low horizontal profiles, elimination of unnecessary details, minimalism, resembling forms from nature
Aesthetics rather than function of a product

Ornamental finishes to enhance aesthetics

Design to appeal to fashion, popular consumerism, youth culture

Borrow and mix styles from other periods, i.e. ancient egyptians

Draw on influences from the media, fashion
and use of everyday materials
Maximum impact rather
than function
Pop Art is a movement
that began in Germany in the
1950's but had its most famous practitioners - at least in this country - in Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein

Lichenstein's broad lines and 'Ben Day' dots can be seen frequently in ads and on magazine covers today
Part 1 - Taking inspiration
from nature
Part 2
Stefano Giovannoni
Philippe Starck

aesthetics rather than function of a product
Copyright Protection
Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time. Generally, it is "the right to copy", but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the work, who may financially benefit from it, and other, related rights.

Copyright initially was conceived as a way for government to restrict printing; the contemporary intent of copyright is the promoting the creation of new works by giving authors control of and profit from them.

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention.

The procedure for granting patents, the requirements placed on the patentee and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims defining the invention which must be new, inventive and useful or industrially applicable.

What? Copyright protects creative or artistic works

literature, including novels, instruction manuals, computer programs, song lyrics, newspaper articles, website content and some types of database

art, including paintings, engravings, photographs, sculptures, collages, architecture, technical drawings, diagrams, maps and logos

layouts, used to publish a work, for a book

recordings, of a work, including sound and film

broadcasts, of a work

© Copyright applies to any medium; you must not reproduce copyright protected work in another medium without permission. You do not have to apply for copyright.

Patents - £££
What? protects new inventions and covers how things work, what they do, how they do it, what they are made of and how they are made. It gives the owner the right to prevent others from making, using, importing or selling the invention without permission.
It must have an new inventive step that is not obvious to someone with knowledge and experience in the subject
be capable of being
in some kind of industry

Must not be
a scientific or mathematical discovery, theory or method
a method of medical treatment or diagnosis
against public policy or morality

* A patent must be renewed every year after the 5th year for up to 20 years protection

Product Development and improvement
Design in the Human Context
AQA - Specification states:-
"Critical assessment of products in everyday use, whether hand or machine made, according to relevant criteria, practical and aesthetic.
Examination of alternative designs and redesigning existing products."

With reference to two different products explain how product development and design
innovation have ensured success for the manufacturer.

In your answer you should refer to
 technology push
 market pull
 planned obsolescence
 the influence of trends and fashion.
(2 x 14 marks)
‘Between two objects equal in function and cost, the more beautiful sells’

The above statement was Raymond Loewy’s definition of good design.

With reference to a range of specific products explain how aesthetics have played an important part in their success.
(12 marks)
These pictures show a traditional metal grater and a modern polymer grater.

Compare and contrast these two graters.

You should make reference to the use of
materials and how these have affected:
 the method of manufacture
 the function and use of the product.
(28 marks)
Just for fun... :-)
AQA Specification states:-
"Human needs and the effects of products and systems on society"

Many products require re-design or modification to suit the specific needs of consumer groups such as the elderly or those with a disability.

With reference to a specific product, explain the changes which could be made in order
to suit the needs of a specific consumer group.

Use diagrams where necessary.
(14 marks)
Human Needs
& Human Factors
Ergonomics & Anthropometrics
Ergonomics concerns the interaction between the human body and products, systems or environments. Products designers are particularly concerned with making products that are easy to use
Anthropometrics involves using body sizes to improve the ergonomics in products, systems and environments.
Anthropometric data taken from the measurements of hundreds of volunteers is normally recorded as percentiles
Average = 50th percentile
Most design activity is for the body sizes between the 5th and 95th percentile, which would take in the majority of the population
You need to be able to critically analyse a range of products in terms of their ergonomics and anthropometrics
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
Product Specification
Products are designed to meet specific criteria to re the outcome fulfils the original need

Development and Prototyping
Designs are defined with attention to styling, function, manufacturing costs
Visual Checks
Products are inspected for imperfections

Random Sampling
Random samples are tested
Choose a product and discuss the specifics of how QA and QC are applied
Sustainability & Environmental Concerns
Manufacturers and retailers are becoming increasingly concerned with the impact that their products make on the environment
1 - Government and International Law
2 - Consumers are more environmentally aware
Environmental Legislation & Regulation
Packaging Directive
End-of-Life Vehicle Directive
Ecolabel is an EU voluntary scheme to allow manufacturers to label their products if they have a reduced impact on the environment in their life cycle
All electrical appliances are labeled with their rating to allow consumers to make an educated choice
Encourages manufacturers to develop electrical and electronic products that can be dismantled and the parts reused or recycled
The directive also requires manufacturers to include instructions to not discard the products but take them to WEEE collection points - they also have to arrange collection of the WEEE
A directive to ban hazardous materials and chemicals such as lead, mercury and cadmium in electrical and electronic equipment to safeguard human health when the electrical equipment is disposed of and recycled
A directive to encourage manufacturers to reuses and recycle waste from vehicles when they reach the end of their life. Restricts toxic metal in new cars and plastic parts have to be labeled to help with recycling
Sets targets for the reduction of packaging by means of designing out waste in the initial packaging design, recycling and re-use. It also limits the toxic materials that can be used
Green Design
Sustainable Design
Sustainable Innovation
Design to reduce the impact on the environment by using recycled materials in the manufacture of products
The main function of a product is analysed and a more environmentally sound method of performing the same function is sought. Often has wider socio-economic benefits such as welfare and safety for workers making it, fair trade etc.
A radical approach that goes beyon sustainable design to look for new ways of doing things using a mix of products and services
eg rr than a home having a washing machine, a community based laundry collects your washing and your recycling using bio-diesel vehicles and then cleans the clothes using renewable energy systems. Your clean clothes then get returned along with your weekly food shop!
This goes further than green design. Designers and manufacturers will try and reduce the impact of a product through its entire life cycle
ICT Applications
Manufacturing Systems
Systems and Control
AQA Specification:-
Appreciation and understanding of the use of CAM
for industrial production
Use of ICT in manufacturing data control (EDI)
CAA (computer aided administration)
CAD (computer aided design) product modelling
PPC (production planning and control) networking
CIM (computer integrated manufacture)
Flexible manufacturing systems
The use of computers to draw a 2D line (vector) and 3D photo-realistic, colour-rendered drawings
Used to design, develop and optimize products
Used for detailed engineering of 3D models and/or 2D drawings of physical components.
Used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of manufacturing methods of components.

Wire Frame Models
Allows user to see the underlying design structure.
Simple and fast to calculate
Used where a high screen frame rate is needed (when working with complex 3D model, or in real-time systems)
Widely used in programming tool paths for CNC machine tools

Surface Models
Describes the skin of a 3D geometric element.
It doesn't have surfaces with ‘normal’ dimensions.
They are used to describe forms such as turbine blades, car bodies and boat hulls.

Method 1:
Draw construction curves and a 3D surface is then swept (section along guide rail) or meshed (lofted) through.
Method 2:
Direct creation of the surface by manipulating the surface poles/control points.
Solid Models
Solid modelling software creates a virtual 3D representation of components for machine design and analysis .

Rapid prototyping technology
3D CAD drawings are downloaded to a prototyping machine that produces a 3D model of the design.

Three common ways to do this:

LOM: Layered Object Modelling
Cuts design layer by layer in thin card
Layers then assembled like a jigsaw

FDM: Fused Deposition Modelling
Like a glue gun; a nozzle extrudes molten plastic
Builds up the design layer by layer as each layer dries.

Stereo- lithographic Modelling
Bath of liquid resin which is solidified in layers to make up the design

Virtual reality modeling
Allows designers to see and manipulate designs in photo-realistic 3D environments.
A manufacturing cell can be designed using this system.
Can show how the manufacturing cells will work, employees will interact and the assembly sequence can be planned.
Cuts cost and lead-time to introduce new products.

Computer integrated manufacture
Method of manufacturing in which the entire production process is controlled by computer.
Also known as
flexible design and manufacturing.
Links design, analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution to the factory floor.

AQA Spec
= An understanding of simple control systems and their application including mechanical systems; energy sources, forms, storage conversion, transmission and efficient use. These may be related to either the function or manufacture of a product.
Systems diagrams – input, process, output
Importance of feedback and control
Application of control systems and sub-systems both within the manufacture and functioning of a range of products
Volume of production – one-off, batch, team and
mass-production techniques
3D Printing
Computer Aided Design
Why use it?
Speeds up the design process
Allows the use of editing features to generate paterns or components
Draw bespoke designs rapidly
Enables the product to be studied from all angles
Realistic Impression
Lowers product development costs and a greatly shortened design cycle.

Allows the user to see the underlying design structure.

Simple and fast to calculate

Used where a high screen frame rate is needed (when working with complex 3D model, or in real-time systems)

Widely used in programming tool paths for CNC machine tools

Method of manufacturing in which the entire production process is controlled by computer.

Also known as flexible design and manufacturing.

Links design, analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution to the factory floor.
Solid modeling software creates a virtual 3D representation of components for machine design and analysis .

Computer Aided Engineering
The use of computers to test components prior to manufacture

Why is it used in Industry?
In the automotive industry, computer models can be used to test vehicle engine or suspension parts under simulated loads. This will then be supported with computer controlled tests run on test rigs.
Pros: Avoids design mistakes
Cons: Expensive

What is it?
Consumer demand changes rapidly with changes in fashion

What does Industry do?
Industries no longer manufacture items to go into stock/ storage before sale to limit the risk of not selling products if market demand changes.
Jaguar Cars has a customer before the car is made

: Minimise expensive storage
: Customer may have to wait longer for the product

Quick response manufacturing
Just in Time

What is it?
Just in Time is a system devised to ensure customers get the product they want at the right time
Materials and components are delivered just in time for when they are needed in the production process

Jaguar have enough stock to make cars for planned assembly in 1 shift.

: Avoids the need for stock to clutter assembly lines and need for costly storage.
: Stock levels must be monitored closely
Work must be sequenced

Flexible manufacturing systems

Manufacturers who mass produce items such as aerosol cans, toothpaste tubes and so on, will use dedicated, automated equipment that will produce those items.

Pros: A safe process because demand for such mass produced items is fairly constant.

Carry out mundane, repetitive tasks that humans dislike
Carry out physically demanding jobs where there may be
Work in hazardous areas
Work to high levels of accuracy
Work for long periods of time without need for stop.

Poor mobility and flexibility
Limited degrees of freedom
High-set up costs
Employment issues


Product cost

Skill Level

Labour costs

Equipment, tooling costs

Scales of Production



High Volume

One-offs (Bespoke)
Generally hand made using a wide range of equipment, techniques
Examples include - Custom jewelery, sculpture, gates

The final product is original to specific specifications
Time consuming and expensive

Batch Production
Manufacture of a few products to 1000s
Examples - Ceramics

Pros More products so less expensive than bespoke
Cons Often a need for jigs

JIGS Explanation - Where a number of products are manufactured, the range of processes are different, jigs are used to reduce time in the long run and make production more efficient.
Mass Production
= high volume production
Production of 1000’s of products
Example – Plastic Vending Cups

Efficient, automated, fast
Expensive set up costs i.e. moulds

Continuous Production
Products are continually being manufactured
Example – steel industry, hot steel in continuously cast into ingots for rolling

Pros Efficient, automated, fast, 24/7
Cons Expensive set up costs, big problems if there is mechanical failure

Industrial: Are automatic, reliable, versatile and efficient by making a product through the best use of time and resources

Controlling systems

Day to day: Washing machine, radiator thermostat, iron
You control the electrical, water systems using settings to your individual requirements


Unit 3 – Section C : Processes and Manufacture

Interfacing, the need to consider how systems and parts of a system
may be inter-connected, e.g. gears and chains in mechanical systems.
Systems and Control

Feedback (checking) is temperature correct?

Feedback (checking) is volume correct?

CD player


The Systems Approach

Feedback…Pressure sensitive nerves

Arm muscles move
to pick up pen
Eyes see pen.
Message to the brain

Fingers grip pen

Temp sensor
Control Unit

1 & 3

Unit 3
Unit 3
1 & 3

Shape Memory Alloys are metals that have been designed to work in a particular way in response to the stresses and strain placed on them
Heat treatment gives the materials is memory
Thermochromic pigments are colour pigments that can change colour in response to heat. The pigments are typically combined with polymers as plastic products are moulded
THERMOCOLOUR FILM - liquid crystal which when heated will change colour, eg testing water temp
THERMOMETERS - thermochromic pigments can be engineered to change colour across a range of temperatures
BATTERIES - include a strip that heats up as the current passes through it so you can see its condition
PHOSPHORESCENT PIGMENTS - developed to replace radioactive materials for glow in the dark items
Polymorph is a low melting point polymer that find useful applications in prototyping
It softens at 60 degrees Celsius making it very easily mouldable - it can also be reheated and re-shaped
Smart Materials
A 'smart material' can be defined as a material whose physically properties change in response to an input.
Designers use smart materials in the creation of products, often making them simpler and safer
Modern Materials
Modern materials are considered to be those that have only been available in their present form since the 1960's/70's - these materials are not considered smart as they do not react in any way to their environments
Fibre Optics
Liquid Crystal Displays
Engineering Timbers
Carbon Fibre
Flexi MDF & Ply
cables and lights - light or information is transmitted as a series of pulses
used in electronic products - carbon based compounds where an electronic current is applied to the crystals altering and controlling their orientation
It is just carbon fibres woven into a cloth and then to make it useful it is impregnated with a resin which bonds them together - light weight and high strength
such as laminated beams
Coated metals both for protection and decoration - polymer coated metals such as drinks cans, non-corrosive wires
Metal foams such as aluminium
A material that handles like clay but is 99.9% silver and when heated to near melting point the metal particles fuse together to make a solid metallic object
Plywood with hexagons laminated into its resin surface making it very strong and great for flooring
high quality, thin, lightweight plywood
Designed to replace MDF - same principle but none of the toxic resin that MDF is made from
Product Components
Fixings &
Knock Down Fittings
Mechanical Joints
It is unusual for a product to be made from only one piece of material
Usually you will have to join several components together to make a product
Screws offer a strong and neat method of fixing wood. They can be removed easily when not used in conjunction with an adhesive.
There are a variety of styles and forms available
Screws are commonly used where the fixing may need to be temporary. They are used because they are ;
- strong
- easy to use
- easy to remove
PIlot and clearance holes are needed for a high quality finish
Special screws - brass screws are not as strong as steel can can break when being tightened
Chipboard screws are designed specifically for chipboard because of their course thread
Rivets are used to join metal to soft materials and to join soft materials to each other
They are a permanent method joining and there are two types, solid and pop
Rivets are -
Pop rivets, also known as blind rivets were designed to overcome the problem of riveting two pieces of material together when access was only possible from one side
These are modern components used for what is called knock down jointing. They are joining methods that allow strong joints to be made quickly and easily. The parts can also easily and quickly be taken apart, so that the product can be flat packed for easy storage and transport
Cam Fitting
Block Connector
2 Part
1 Part
Corner Plate
T-Nut and Bolt
Barrel Nut and Bolt
Screw Socket
Screw Connector
Nails are available in a variety of forms that are used for different purposes
They are a quick method of joining wood and are difficult to remove
When a nail is hammered int a piece of wood;
- the nail forces the fibres of the wood apart
- the lines of grain move and grip the nail
- if the nail is pulled, the fibres of wood grip the nail more firmly
If the nail is placed too close to the edge of the piece of wood, it will split
Too many nails along the line of grain will also cause splitting
Oval nails should be used with the oval running along the grain
Soft wood
Man-made boards
Hard woods
PIlot and clearance holes are needed for a high quality finish
Corner Plate
T-Nut and Bolt
PIlot and clearance holes are needed for a high quality finish
PIlot and clearance holes are needed for a high quality finish
Non Ferrous
Components whose joining function is secondary to its primary function
Nuts and bolts are temporary joining methods
They allow for quick and easy assembly
They allow for disassembly for maintenance and repair
The usual head for a bolt is a hexagon and are tightened and opened using a spanner
Nuts - Hexagonal - spanners
Wing - by hand
Nylock - nylon insert stops it from coming undone
Castellated - a nut with a split pin to prevent it coming undone
Washers are used with nuts and bolts against any surface that may cause damage
Plain washers are cheap
Locking washers prevent nuts from coming undone
Tab Washers lock a nut into place
Spring washers can withstand vibration
Handles allow doors to be opened easily. There are many different types of knobs, pulls and handles. The handle you choose will depend on the user, the look, the weight, the need etc
Large wooden structures may need strengthening
An inexpensive and convenient way of adding strength to the joints is to screw a metal plate to the wood
Angle Plates and Tee Plates are made from mild steel
Fabrication Methods
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The action or process of manufacturing or inventing something:
Woods, Metals, Plastics & Compliant materials all need to be cut, shaped and assembled into products, this is the process of fabrication.
Traditional Joining Methods
Permanent Joining Methods
The main advantage of adhesives is that essentially it is an invisible joint. They do not damage or change the shape of a component
There are two main groups;
Natural Adhesives
Synthetic Adhesives
Things to remember when discussing adhesives;
good preparation and thorough cleaning (all dust, grease, previous coatings must be removed)
The adhesive should be applied to one or both surfaces
The component needs to be held in place until the adhesive dries
They can join dissimilar materials
They can have insulating properties
Wasting Processes
Wasting refers to manufacturing processes that produce WASTE MATERIAL, eg dust, swarf or scraps

Wood Wasting
Waste material from cutting and shaping can be reused in manufactured boards, eg hardboard, chipboard, MDF, Mayplex etc
Can be bagged and sold as briquettes for household heating use
Pros - A biodegradable, flammable, waste material that can be disposed of easily

Plastic Wasting
Thermoplastic waste can be reground and used again in manufacturing processes
Pros - Reusable, however some thermoset plastic is difficult to dispose of and would need recycling
Blanking & Piercing
Drilling is wasting process because of excess material removed when a hole is created

As the drill bit rotates, it is lowered into the material which is then cut away and forced up the flutes of the drill
Milling machines use a rotating cutter which removes waste material from a billet (block) of materials
Filing removes waste material from the edge of a piece of materials
Lathes are used for turning woods and metals, producing cylindrical items
Spaced to maximise efficiency and minimise waste materials
Plasma cutting: An electric arc blasts through the metal to produce very little waste
Cons- non-CNC controlled
Laser Cutting: A fine cut, CNC controlled process, reducing waste even further
Cons - expensive, specialist training
CNC Laser Cutters for 2D cutting and engraving
3D Printers or stereo lithographic modellers to prototype designs
CNC Plotter cutters for 2D printing and cutting of vinyl
CNC Routers for 3D machining of block and sheet materials
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Forming Methods
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Steam Bending
is the technique of manufacturing a material/s in multiple layers, so that the material achieves improved strength, stability, appearance or other properties from the use of same or differing materials.
Some woods are cut thin enough and are naturally flexible, these are layers are glued together which is called laminating.
Some manufactured boards are designed to be pliable such as flexible plywood.

Once the glued layers are glued in position around the mould they are ready for forming.
Moulds are easily manufactured using a material called Styrofoam, which is soft & easy to cut.
The process of gluing and shaping the material to the mould is known as ‘laying up’.
A piece of material is placed under the valve & the mould to allow air to flow around the mould & ensure a good vacuum is created around the entire mould.
The mould is placed in the bag press & the bag sealed air tight.
The mould is left in the vacuum for at least 2 hours to ensure the glue dries in position & there is no ‘spring back’.

Thin layers of flexible wood or plywood are glued with a special roller that delivers a thin & evenly distributed layer of PVA glue. Too much glue & the layers will slide about in the bag press.
Solid Wood can be manipulated into shape through the use of heat and moisture as it becomes more pliable. In this state it can be shaped with the aid of jigs that hold the wood in position until it cools and dries.
Pliability is achieved by placing the wood in a "steam chamber" heated to 100 degrees Centigrade. As a rule wood should be steamed for about two minutes per millimetre of thickness and one hour of steaming per inch thickness of wood.

Why form wood in this way?
Cutting solid wood
Cutting solid wood across the grain into thin profiles leaves it structurally weak
scale production
It is easy to produce large batches & it’s beautiful.
Less waste!
It’s cheaper than because there is no waste through cutting from a single wood block. Just imagine all those wood shavings!!
Structurally it is stronger because the wood grain hasn’t been cut and weakened. Particularly useful in products such as ship hulls where forces are exerted on it.

How it's made
See how an aluminium drinks can is manufactured using blanking & piercing, press-forming, cupping & deep drawing.
A punch presses the sheet metal circular 'blank' into a cup shape through the use of a die. As with vacuum forming the sides of the material become thinner due to being stretched.
Deep drawing
Cupping on its own is not enough to produce the elongated shaped required for the aluminium can and therefore needs to under go deep drawing which is repeated pressing through a series of forming rings using the aluminiums ductile properties to press it into shape. Lubrication is used as the process produces heat as a by product.
& Piercing
Blanking is a wasting process which uses a shearing action to punch out the blanks ready to form into shape.
Press Forming
Press forming is also used to shape car body panels. No heating of the material is required for this process. Once again shaped punches & dies are used. This gives the metal structure
Embossing is sometimes used in products such as an aluminium drinks can to add detail & decorative features. It is in some respects similar to press forming however dies are more detailed, jewellery would be an example of an embossed feature in metal.
The process of working metals into shape by redistributing the metal either hot, cold or molten. These processes include;
Deep drawing
Cam Fitting
Block Connector
T Nut & Bolt
Corner Plate
Screw Socket
Chipboard fastener
Screw Connector
Barrel Nut & Bolt
Intro Theory
All metals are made up of crystals. Each crystal has a boundary that is firmly bonded to the boundary of a neighbouring crystal.

The nature of the crystal depends very much on the material. For example, steel is made up of iron and carbon so these elements will be seen within the microstructure of the material.
Structure of Metals

Along with woods metals have been used for thousands of years.
All metals have a variety of useful characteristics/properties which make them suited to different jobs.
Availability of Metal Ores:

25% of the earths crust is made up of metal ores
Aluminium is the most common ore, followed by iron
In general, the more rare the material the more expensive it is (however aluminium which is a common ore is expensive to process as you have to use electrolysis rather than heat)
The ores do not re-grow when we dig them up meaning metals are non renewable and unsustainable

Gold is the only metal that is found in a usable form; all other metals are found as ores. The table below shows you the name of the metal and the ore it came from.
Where do metals come from?

Typical uses for cast iron and steels:

Ferrous Metals – Its Uses

Ductility – is a sol id material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire.
Hardness – is the measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a force is applied. There are three main types of hardness measurements: scratch, indentation, and rebound.
Toughness – is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing
We can change the properties of iron by changing the amount of carbon we add – this creates steels.
Ferrous Metals – Steel

Iron is generally soft and ductile, which does not make it very commercially useful material. When carbon (a very hard, brittle element) is mixed with the iron the characteristics (properties) of iron are greatly improved. The result is a harder and tougher material – steel. Increasingly the carbon content has the following effects:
The material becomes harder
Toughness reduces – cast iron is brittle under impact
Both medium and high carbon steel can be heat treated to make them harder and stronger
Ferrous metals are metals which contain iron. They will corrode if unprotected. Ferrous metals will be attracted by a magnet.
Ferrous Metals – Iron

We extract iron from magnetite ore using a blast furnace.
Ferrous Metals – How we extract iron

stiffening the material rather than that of unshaped flimsey sheet materials and in the case of car body panels improves impact resistance.

Embossed metal work
Advantages of Drop Forging
Cut & Cast products
Basic crystaline structure
Large scales of the same product can be batch or mass produced.
Less metal used & large heavy hammers with exceptionally high forces possible.
The structure & the grain are maintained in the product giving it far greater strength. Products that require these properties are those under large torque forces such as engine pistons & crank shafts.
Used to produce large numbers of similar shaped products such as spanners, hooks and even replacement hip joints. The product often goes through a series of dies in order to achieve the final shape. Some further trimming & machining may also be required as is the case in gears to create precision teeth.
Drop Forging
stub axel
Hip replacement
Rolled crystalline structure
Non-ferrous Metals
– How we extract aluminium and Copper
Scroll work
Can be performed cold dependent on the material, for example mild steel ductile enough to be formed cold.
The process of flattening & lengthening the metal work. As it thins the material lengthens. Often used at the end of hooks & scrolls to create an aesthetic look.
Heating to cherry red & hammering a bend into the metal over the anvil.
To punch through & push the material outwards to create a hole. This helps preserve the grain structure in the metal.
Non-ferrous are metals which do not contain iron. Pure metals such as aluminium, copper, tin and lead are non-ferrous, and do not rust.
Bauxite – aluminium ore is the most abundant ore in the earths crust but it is not the most heavily used (steel is) – why do you think that is the case?

The hand process of heating iron and steel to cherry red to shape through twisting, bending, scrolling, drawing & punching.
Alloys are create by mixing two or more metals together to give the new alloy metal a combination of the properties that the previous two metals had. We do add other things to alloys such as silicon which is not a metal.

Benefits of alloying: -
changes the melting point
changes colours
increases strength, hardness and ductility
enhances resistance to corrosion and oxidation
changes electrical/thermal properties
improves flow properties, producing better castings

Scroll block
Alloying steels with elements such as chromium and nickel will produce stainless steel – a well known group of metals with good corrosion resistance, hardness, strength and toughness.

Most metal, steel included, will become less hard and more ductile when heated. By alloying with tungsten, chromium and cobalt, a range of high speed steels can be produced, which do not lose their cutting edges when a working temperatures.

Alloy - Steel
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Knock down fittings are now common in wood products due to quality components being easily manufactured & assembled by the customer. This speeds up production & allows the product to be flat packed therefore reducing transportation costs this also makes it cheaper & easier for the customer to transport home.

The advantage of these are that they are temporary joints & the product can be disassembled & reassembled for example when moving house.
Traditional Joining methods
These type of traditional joints are designed to be permanent.
These joints are traditionally suited to the manufacture of table tops & kitchen worktops. As natural wood does not come in large widths each plank must be joined.
Table Legs
Used to join the frame on which a table top sits.
Used in the manufacture of drawers & boxes. A dovetail joint is particularly strong.
Used in the manufacture of cabinets to assemble the back panel on shelving units.
Used in the traditional manufacture of chairs
Tongue & Groove
Biscuit Joint
Splined edge to edge
Dowel Joint
Haunched Mortise + Tenon
Corner Bridle joint
Corner Mortise + Tenon
Mortise & Tenon
Twin mortise + tenon (2)
Finger Joint
Lap Joint
Groove Joint
Comb joint
The comb joint above is often used to join sections together such as hand rails as wood in these long lengths are not easy to produce & create large amounts of waste.
Finishing Materials
& Processes

Common Forms
- Protect a material against corrosion
- Make the product water repellant
- Improve resistance to wear and tear
- Improve ability to reflect/absorb heat
- Improve ability to insulate against heat/electricity
- Preservatives: water based, exterior, stains, yacht varnish and polyurethane varnish
- Enhance aesthetics: paints, stains, colour washes and wax finishes, lamination
-Methods: spray, dip, paint, pressure treating
- Primers: zinc and red oxide
- Paints: acrylic and cellulose
- Methods: brush, spray, dip and powder coating
- Plating: chrome, silver and tin plating
- Galvanising
- Dip coating with polymers
- Brushing, polishing
- Pigments and Stabilisers
- Applied finishes: acrylic paints and chrome effects
Plastics - self colouring
Woods - dye and paint
Metals - anodise, electroplate and paint
Plastics - sand blasting
Metals - embossing

Plastics - self finishing (smooth, shiny, waterproof)
Woods - sanding, protective coating
Metals - de-burring, protective coating
Cutting Processes
Plastics - sprue trimming
Woods - stock sizes generated
Metals - de-burring
Stainless steel (chromium plating of steel to stop corrosion and enhance aesthetics)
taps,kitchen equipment
Aluminium is dyed and sealed with a lacquer (aesthetic)
climbers equipment, iPods

Zinc Plating (Galvenising)
Steel is dipped into molten zinc at 450c
car bodies
Tin Plating
Steel passes through molten tin at 315c
food cans
Finely ground glass is sprayed onto steel then fired to give high heat and scratch resistance
baths and cookers
Acrylic or cellulose paint applied to mild steel car bodies which have been previously galvenised
car bodies
Powder Coating
Paint (+'vely charged) is applied to metal that has been statically charged (-'ve). Powder is then baked to form a tougher finish than paint
domestic white goods like fridges and washing machines
Plastic Coating
Product is heated to around 230c and dipped into fluidised plastic powder that melts evenly over it
trowel handles and wire frame bowls
Paint (Protective & Aesthetic)
Oil based paints are hard wearing and water repellant
outdoor applications
Polyurethane paints are hard wearing and scratch resistant
childrens toys
Pressure Treating
Water is removed from timber by drying and replaced by preservatives under high pressure, it is then steamed dry
wooden products can last for up to 50 years without further treating
Gives a dull gloss shine, enhances the grain
indoor furniture, wooden products such as bowls
Enhances the grain, penetrates the surface of timber and available in a variety of colours
enhancing wooden products such as fences and storage
A tough surface develops and makes the wood resistant to heat and water
tables, furniture
Plastics have an excellent surface qualities. As they are self-finishing, plastics require little or no surface finish. However if designers want a specific colour or texture then spray paints can be used ( sanding down with wet and dry followed by a primer will be necessary though)
Temporary methods of joining metals are through the use of machine screws, self tapping screws, nuts & bolts.
Joining Methods
The lowest temperature joining method used to create electronics by joining components to a printed circuit board. An alloy of Tin, lead and antimony are used.
Health & Safety
Pop rivet
Safety in Manufacture
Safety in Children's Toys
Risk Assessments
Managing the Work Environment
Employees undertake safety courses and are tested against H&S standards

Most machines under HSE regulations are guarded to prevent employees hurting themselves. Cutting, pressing, exposure to UV

Job Rotation
To stop RSI employees can be rotated to another production process

Protective Clothing
Overalls, dust masks, safety bootsand goggles

Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health

Risk Assessments
A calculation of how hazardous a process is compared to injury and frequency
Hazard Symbols
Rivet gun
A quick & easy way to join sheet aluminium, the rivet is pulled through producing a bulbus secondary head pulling the two materials together.
Panels riveted together
Traditional way of joining sheet metals particularly in ships. Rivets were heated to cherry red & hammered into shape, as they cooled they shrunk pulling the sheets together. Smaller rivets can also be carried out as a cold process.
Safety in Children's Toys
BS EN 71

Part 1 - Mechanical and Physical Properties
There are no parts that can stab, trap, mangle or choke
Part 2 - Flammability
Limits materials used to prohibit the more flammable ones, ensures if the toy does catch fire the child can drop it, get out or get away from it
Part 3 - Migration of certain elements
Limits the 'release' of harmful substances such as lead or mercury f they are chewed or swallowed
Part 4 - Experimental sets for chemistry and related activities
Gives safe limits that can be sold in a set
Part 5 - Chemical toys other than those used for experiments
Controls substances such as paints, modelling clay etc
Part 6 - Graphical symbol for age warm labelling
Sets the standard for labelling toys unsuitable for children under three
Part 7 - Finger Paints
Controls chemical amounts linked to exposure and ingestion
Part 8 - Swings, slide and similar (indoor)
Limits the height, reduces protruding parts, ensures stability and prevents clothing from becoming trapped
Lugs for bicycles are braised to attach tubes for the frame.
- There are no parts that could cause entrapment
- Use of non-toxic paints, i.e. lead free
- The working mechanisms / batteries are covered
- The toy will withstand wear and tear, i.e. pull eyes, limb out
- The toy is made from a material which is flame retardant
- Small parts cannot become detached and form a choking hazard
1974 Health and Safety at Work Act
Employers, Schools, Businesses have certain
responsibilities to ensure the safety of its workers
and students

Central to these responsibilities is the carrying out of RISK ASSESSMENTS - A risk assessment must:
- Identify HAZARDS that pose a risk
- Evaluate the RISKS
- Put CONTROL MEASURES in place to minimise the risks
A gas torch is used to heat the hard solder (a higher melting point solder) which melts, a flux coating is used to prevent oxidisation.
Electric Arc Welding
Filler rods used to weld aluminium together, Aluminium has a low melting point and it is very easy to melt the aluminium product its self so it is important to keep the torch moving.
A risk assessment should be carried out for any practical work that is done - the above is an example of a risk assessment in a graphics studio
Immediate Risks:
These result from hazards that could cause sudden and immediate harm from just one use
Cumulative Risks:
These risks are caused by prolonged exposure to something. Cumulative risks are often harder to anticipate, as they can be caused by things that are not obviously dangerous
Health and Safety Signs come in a variety of colours - each colour indicates a different type of warning
More refined versions of electric arc welding, gas is used to prevent oxidisation.
MIG - Metal Inert Gas
TIG - Tungsten Inert Gas
Special hazard symbols are used on bottles and vehicles that contain dangerous chemicals

These hazard symbols show the level and nature of the risk posed by the substance
Generates heat by creating an electrical current through the gap between the materials this gap is known as the 'arc'. The electrode is coated in flux to prevent oxidisation.
Quality Control
The Oxford English Dictionary describes the term 'quality' as meaning;
This type of welding generates heat using a combination of oxygen & acetylene to produce an extremely high temperature of around 2500 degrees C at the hottest part of the flame, hot enough to melt the steel & join it.
For a product to be 'generally excellent', there must be quality in more than just the manufacturing of the product

Quality is not an accident; it is a planned and carefully considered series of strategies applied to te process of product design from product conception through to product manufacture
Quality Assurance
Jigs, Moulds, Formers and Templates
To join materials by heating the surfaces to the point of melting which create a pool of metal & permanently join as they cool.
To join materialby heating the surfaces to the point of melting
Assurance is
the term applied
to the setting of
strategies and
processes which will
ensure that a company
meets certain standards
- some of which are essential
if a company wants to sell
its products in the world

Today for a company to gain
customer loyalty and satisfaction, all of
the 'systems' within it need to conform t international standards
Total Quality Management

This is about establishing quality in all aspects
of a company, not just the manufacturing sections

All member of the team are part of quality circles which overlap within different sections of a company to ensure that the final product is of the highest standard possible
Nut & Bolt
Product designers usually
work within frameworks which meet
international standards

International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
is an international body which accredits companies with a certification to show that the management within their company meets certain standards

The ISO 9000 award is primarily concerned with quality management. This involves asking questions like:
Self tapping
Jigs help you line objects up
Moulds help you form objects by surrounding and shaping them
Formers help you bend and shape objects accurately and consistently - they are a bit like the opposite of moulds - instead of placing the material to be shaped inside, you bend or shape the materials around the former
Templates are used to allow you to replicate designs over and over again, with great accuracy
Suggest two different barriers that could be applied to a child's outdoor swing (produced from mild steel) to protect it from the weather.
Explain using diagram where appropriate, how these barriers would be applied
Look at the photographs below. Explain how the two gates shown might be protected from the environment
Steel Gate
Wooden Gate
Go round the department - DO NOT disrupt lessons and look for as many health and safety signs as you can, jot them down commenting on the colour and reason
Complete a risk assessment for one part of your manufacturing process in the making of your final product
Answer the following questions;
1) What does quality control involve?
2) Give one example of a quality control check for a kettle base unit.
3) Give two reasons why manufacturers have
quality checks for their products.
4) Some manufacturers have quality circles at their factories. Explain what a quality circle is.
5) Describe three quality control tests you
might carry out on a garden spade.
Ultrasonic Welding
Materials such as PVC are joined by using a combination of high pressure & high frequency mechanical vibrations. The advantages of this process is that it uses relatively low temperatures & therefore the cost of manufacture is lower.
Similar to Electric Arc welding this method also uses heat & filler rod.
Plastics are softened by coating them with a solvent, then clamped or pressed together. The plastic molecules mix together, and the parts bond when the solvent evaporates. This process is limited to thermoplastics. Fusion time is a function of the solvent's evaporation rate and may be shortened by heating.
The simplest way to join plastic parts is to design a fastening element (hinge, latch, detent) into the parts. Only stronger plastics are suitable for this method since the joint must survive the strain of assembly, service load, and possible repeated use. This form of fastening is suitable only for lightly loaded, nonrigid assemblies where precision is not critical. This type of fixing is known as an
'Integral fixing' as it is an integral part of the product

Mechanical fasteners (screws, rivets, pins, sheet-metal nuts) are the most common joining method. They require a plastic that can withstand the strain of fastener and high stress around the fastener.
Mechanical Fastening
Hot glue sealents
Used to produce a higienic seal between the packaging & the film lid.
Vacuum Forming
Applied to thermoforming plastics, commonly used in school but products that are produced using vacuum forming on an industrial scale are baths, food packaging.
Thermoforming is similar to vacuum forming but relies on an outer mould in addition to the vacuum from the lower mould to help push the plastic into shape producing far greater detail.
Line bending
A heated element created from a tensioned wire, commonly used in 'Point Of Sale' Stands, menus & signage applications.
Moulding Processes
Injection Moulding
Blow moulding
Used in the manufacture of bottles, usual signs are seam from a split mould, thickening at the neck & which is hollow & narrow.
Rotational Moulding
Used to produce hollow 3D products such as balls, traffic cones & storage tanks. The mould is filled with plastic powder, the mould is closed then it is heated, rotated then allowed to cool before opening & removing. The moulds are generally less expensive to produce.
Compression Moulding
1. Guide Pins – fixed to one half of the mould and align the two halves by entering the holes in the other half.
2. Runner – passageways in the mould connecting the cavities to the sprue bush.
3. Gate – Frequently the runner narrows as it enters the mould cavity. This is called a gate and produces a weak point enabling the moulding to be easily broken or cut from the runner.
4. Sprue Bush – Tapered hole in the centre of the mould into which the molten plastic is first injected.
5. Locating Ring – Positions the mould on the fixed platen so that the injection nozzle lines up with the sprue bush.
6. Mould Cavity – The space in the mould shaped to produce the finished component(s).
7. Ejector Pins – These pins push the moulding and sprue/runner out of the mould.
8. The Shot – Total amount of plastic injected into mould.
9. Sprue – Material which sets in the sprue bush.
Moulding Tool
Granuless of plastic are poured into the hopper and are melted. The archimedes screw forces shots of plastic into the mould. This process is able to produce complex shapes in large volumes & metal inserts can be included into the mould. High quality plastic toys such as lego use injection moulding. However set up costs are extremely high & machindmoulds are expensive to produce.
The most important method of moulding for thermoset polymers compression moulding uses a combination of heat & pressure to form the 'slug' into the desired product. The product needs time to '
' which is the process of the rigid cross links forming in the plastic.
Laying up
Glass reinforced Polymers (GRP) better known as Fibreglass is uses a process of laying sheet by sheet around the mould & applying an epoxy resin between layers which sets hard. There are two methods of carrying this out, a) by hand & brushing on each layer of b) spraying the resin & catalyst on together. This is known as 'Chopping'.
Concrete is cast into large moulds, it is poured into the mould or for larger concrete casings it is pumped.
Polyester resins (a thermoset polymer requiring a catalyst) are also cast by pouring them into a mould which is made from silicon. Common uses are in jewellery & paperweights.
Extrusion is very similar to injection moulding in plastics except the shot of plastic is continuous pushed through the mould.
Sand Casting
A process to cast aluminium using a pattern (essentially a replica of the product) which is placed between two halves & filled with sand. The pattern is removed prior to casting. Good for extremely small batches but can produce quite complex designs.
Gravity & Die Casting
For metals with a low melting point such as zinc, lead, pewter, tin, magnesium & aluminium. Pewter casting is a gravity die casting process. More industrial die casting forces the molten metal into the mould under pressure.
Industrial Die Casting
Four slides that open & close independently into place to allow complex 3D moulds & products to be manufactured. Door locks & internal electrical components for domestic electrical sockets use this type of casting.
Investment Casting
High quality wax pattern is produced then coated in a ceramic shell. The molten metal can now be poured in, as it does so the wax pattern is lost. Once cool the . When the metal solidifies & cools the ceramic shell is removed. It is this method of manufacture that is used to create precision engineered turbine engine blades at Rolls Royce.
Metal extrusion uses a very similar process to that of plastics to create a variety of stock bar & rod profiles. Aluminium window frames are an example of complex extruded profiles.
Engine block
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