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Year 10 - Peace and War: International Relations 1943-1991

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Michael Brodie

on 20 April 2015

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Transcript of Year 10 - Peace and War: International Relations 1943-1991

Both sides competed to provide loans and aid to less developed countries in order to win their support. E.g. Cuba received a lot of money from the USSR and America provided aid to war torn Europe and Japan.
The USA and USSR had open communication channels between the two countries from 1963 onwards. Although in popular culture this was called the "red telephone," a telephone between Moscow and Washington D.C. never really existed.
This took place on ground, in the air, in the sea and even in space!!
There was lots of fighting just not between the USA and USSR.
THE cold War 1943-1991
This happened a lot like in an ordinary war. Many people were caught passing information on to the other side. An example is the Soviet spy Alexandr Feklisov.
This means spying!
Many James Bond films were made during the Cold War about the activities of spies in the conflict.
year 10 - Peace and War: International Relations 1943-1991
The origins of the cold War
What do you think of when you think of war?
The Cold War pitted two countries against each other:
Think, Pair, Share.
Step 1:
Sort the cards into columns of information for the USA and Soviet Union to give an idea of what the two countries were like prior to the Cold War.

Step 2:
Colour code the cards into political, economic and beliefs.

Step 3:
Stick these into your books in columns.

Step 4:
Answer the following questions in full sentences:
Q1) What evidence have you found that suggests that the USA and the USSR would not get on? Explain your answer.
Q2) Identify one difference between the two countries which you think is the most important. Explain why you think this is.
The Cold War was inevitable because of the differences in ideology between the USA and the USSR.
Learning Objectives
Know - What the Cold War was, who was involved and how it was fought.

Understand - Why the countries involved began to distrust each other.

Skills - Causation.
Success Criteria
Identifies who was involved in the Cold War and what the Cold War was like.

Can compare the differences between the USA and USSR and identify how they led to the Cold War.

Can analyse a cartoon for its message and purpose and can make a judgement on whether the Cold War was inevitable.
What do you think is meant by the word superpower?

What might its key features be?

Add your own definition of superpower to your glossary.
No fighting between the USA and USSR.
Development of new Weapons
contact between the Countries involved
Judge the statement
Completely Agree
Completely Disagree
Q) What does the cartoon suggest about the relationship between America and the USSR after World War Two?
Use this formula -
M - Message - state what it is.
O - Own Knowledge - use this to justify your argument.
D - Details from the source - Explain what the details show.
CCCP is Russian for USSR.
Success Criteria
Describes the message.
Explains the message with reference to their own knowledge from the lesson.

1)What is the message of the cartoon?

2) What is its purpose?

3) What does it tell us about America during the Cold War?
Dr Brodie's Expectations - The 3 Rs
1) Be Ready - Come to class prepared to work. This means having all the equipment needed for the lesson and having an open and inquisitive mind.

2) Be Responsible - Participate, pay attention, make your best effort and ask for help when you need it.

3) Be Respectful - Listen when others are talking, put your hand up to answer questions and encourage others' learning.
Do we agree these are fair?
Watch the cartoon then answer the following questions
1) Add a definition of Cold War to a Glossary in the back of
your books.

2) Describe 2 features of the Cold War (in the front of
your books.)

Success Criteria:
* Identify the factors.
* Give some information about them.

E.g. One feature of the Cold War was espionage. Spies were used by both sides to find out important information about each other especially about military developments.
'Time to bridge the gulch' (1946)
Create a Fact file on the Soviet Union and the USA.
What were the outcomes of the Tehran Conference (1943)?
Learning Objectives
Know - Key features of the Tehran Conference

Understand - How the Tehran Conference affected relations between the Allies.

Skills - Significance
Success Criteria
Can describe features of the Tehran Conference.

Can explain the outcomes of the Tehran Conference.

Can evaluate how the Tehran Conference affected relations between the Allies.
Where is Tehran?
The Big Three at Tehran (1943)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Joseph Stalin
Winston Churchill
"We came here with hope and determination. We leave here friends, in fact, in spirit and in purpose.”
Judge the statement by the "BIG THREEE" at the end of the Tehran conference.
Separate the following RESULTS INTO THOSE THAT made the cold war "more likely" and "less likely." For each explain why.
Both the Soviet Union and Britain and America would have a "sphere of influence" in post-war Europe.
The allies disagreed over Germany. Stalin wanted them heavily punished for the war, whereas Roosevelt and Churchill wanted a prosperous Germany.
A United Nations organisation was to be set up after the war to help countries cooperate.
The Soviet Union was to wage war against Japan after Germany had been defeated.
Spot the difference
Yalta Conference (February 1945)
Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
Part of Poland was to be added to the Soviet Union at the end of the war.
What were the intentions of the "BIg three" at Tehran?
1) Wanted to open a new front in the Balkans (Yuogslavia) to stop the USSR having influence over all of Eastern Europe.

2) Wary of Stalin's intentions, wanted guarantees of post-war behaviour.
1) Wanted to punish Germany - wanted them to pay reparations and lose territory - wanted land eastern Poland to be given to the USSR.

2) Wanted support to be given to Yugoslav partisans (communists)

3) Wanted a second front to be opened in France.
1)Wanted Stalin to declare war on Japan and help in the Pacific war.

2) Wanted a commitment to a post war United Nations organisation.

3) Wanted to form a working relationship with Stalin.
Britain and the USA would open up a second front by invading France.
Support was given to the Yugoslav Communist partisans.
1) Explain the key features of the Tehran Conference. Remember PEE - Point, Evidence, Explain

2) Which of the "Big Three" do you think would have been most pleased with the outcomes of the Teheran Conference? Explain your answer and compare all three.
What is a "sphere of influence?"

Think, pair, share.
What impression of relations does the video give of the relations between the leaders?
How did the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences affect relations between the USA and the Soviet Union?
Read pages 74-77 and do the activities on page 77.

Extension - Which Grand Alliance conference was most significant in altering the relationship between the USSR and the USA? Explain your answer.
What was the most significant event in changing relations between the Soviet Union and America?
a) The Potsdam Conference
b) The Yalta Conference
c) The Tehran Conference
Know - Details of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences.

Understand - How the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences were significant in altering relations between the USSR and the USA.

Skills - Significance
Learning Objectives
Success Criteria
Describe features of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

Explains the consequences of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences.

Makes a judgement on the most significant event in altering relations between the USSR and the USA.
Working in your groups prepare a presentation answering the question "Who was to blame for the Cold War"
Success Criteria
You must use evidence from the three conferences, the telegrams and Iron Curtain speech.
You must compare your country to the other and explain it is more to blame.
Everyone in the group must present something.
You must choose the event you think is most important in affecting relations.
You will have 15 minutes to prepare.
Use pages 74-79 to help.
Add a definition of Iron Curtain to your glossary.
Who was to Blame for the Cold War?
Learning Objectives
Know - The content of the secret telegrams and of Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech.

Understand - The possible arguments for who was to blame for the Cold War

Skills - Causation
Success Criteria
Can describe features of the secret telegrams and Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech.

Can explain the consequences of the secret telegrams and Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Speech.

Can use evidence to create an argument answering the question: "Who was to blame for the Cold War?"
The Truman Doctrine and the MarshalL pLan
Draw this table in your books:
Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
What was it?
What was its effect on relations?
What was its aims?
Use the information on pages 80-81 to complete the table.
Extension: Which was more significant in affecting relations between the USSR and USA, the Marshall Plan or the Truman Doctrine? Explain your answer.
Top and Tail then add these definitions to your glossary

International Relations

Grand Alliance

Foreign Policy
The Allies during WWII - USA, Britain and the USSR.

A policy of forcefully preventing the spread of communism.

The actions of a government towards others.

The nature of relationships between countries.
Part of the Truman Doctrine are still in use today - with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Should one country be able to dictate the politics of the rest of the world in the way the USA has?
Success Criteria
Learning Objectives
Know - The contents of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan.

Understand - How the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan affected relations between the USA and the USSR.

Skills - Significance
You have 3 options:

1) Create his own form of Marshall Plan to help countries.
2) Invade European Countries to stop them from receiving Marshall Aid.
3) Organise organisations across Europe and hope they come to power in their countries.
4) Put all the USSR's effort into building an atomic bomb and hope the USA backs down.

Alternatively, you can come up with your own plan for Stalin (It must be sensible).
TASK: What should Stalin do?
*Make your choice.
* Write an explanation in your books individually.
*You MUST justify why you have chosen the choice you have.
* Explain why you did not choose other options.
Think about:
Why will it work?
Will it work long term?
What are the risks - How will the USA react?
Explain the importance of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan to international relations.
(5 marks for each)
Write in the exam style.

Success Criteria:
*U - Unlinked - You do not need to link them in any way.
*F - Facts -Back up with factual support. E.g explain content and consequences
*O - Own knowledge - Support with your own knowledge.

Due Date: Tuesday 10 February 2014.
Describes the content of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.

Explains the effects of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

Creates a justifies a response to the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan from the Soviet Perspective.
Cold War
Iron Curtain
Clement Attlee
Winston Churchill
Long Telegram
atomic bomb
Joseph Stalin
foreign policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry Truman
Marshall Plan
Grand Alliance
International Relations
Tehran Conference
Potsdam Conference
The Soviet Union's Actions AFTER WWII
Success Criteria
Learning Objectives
Know - What the Soviet Satellite states, Comecon and cominform were.

Understand - How and why Stalin responded to the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan

Skills -Source Analysis
Can describe the satellite state, the Cominform and Comencon.

Can explain why they were established.

Can analyse sources for their usefulness in explaining American-Soviet relations.
At the centre was the USSR
Answer the questions on your worksheet
Soviet Satellite
Comecon was the Soviet Union's answer to the Marshall Plan.

It was established in 1949.

In its first year its members were: Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Albania and East Germany joined in 1950.

Stalin used it to:
*Control the economies of the states involved.
*Give the USSR access to their resources.
*Encourage economic specialisation within the Soviet bloc. E.g. Czechoslovkia was told to focus on heavy industry.
Name as many countries in Eastern Europe as you can.
So what did Stalin Do?
He did 1, 3 and 4

1) Create his own form of Marshall Plan to help countries -
Stalin established the Comecon in 1949.

3) Organise organisations across Europe and hope they come to power in their countries -
In 1947 Stalin established the Cominform.

4) Put all the USSR's effort into building an atomic bomb and hope the USA backs down -
The USSR developed the atomic bomb in 1949.
Make a mind map of what happened in the these countries after World War Two. Use pp. 24-5.
These usually followed the following formula
*Coalition governments were established.
*Communists took over key areas of civil service, media, security and defence.
*Opposition leaders were arrested.
*Elections were held but fixed to ensure Communists won.
* People's democracies were set up.
The Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) was established in 1947.

It was an attempt by Stalin to co-ordinate all communist parties in Europe.

It was his response to the Truman Doctrine.

It was introduced to ensure Eastern European states:
* Followed the USSR's foreign policy aims.
*Introduced Soviet style economic policies.
Why did the Soviet Union Expand?
Learning Objectives
Know - What the Soviet Union did after the Second World War.

Understand - The reasons why the Soviet Union expanded.

Skills - Causation and Chronology
Turn to pages 22-23 and read the information and answer the questions on page 23.
EXTENSION - Look at the 5 reasons it gives for Soviet expansion. Which do you think is the most important reason? Explain your answer.
1) Take a clean double page in your books.
2) Using a RULER draw a timeline like the one below in through the middle of the double page in your books.
3) The dates on the timeline need to go from 1943-1948
4) Draw lines from the timeline to give you space to stick your information in.
Explain why relations between the USA and the Soviet Union changed in the years 1943-47.
(12 marks)
Due Date: Tuesday 25 February
The Tehran Conference
Success Criteria
Step One - Use your books and the textbooks to fill in key events.

Step Two - Colour code your timeline for events which involved the USA, USSR and both.

Step Three - Choose three events which you think are the most important in causing the Cold War. Label them.
Success Criteria
Describes what the Soviet Union did after World War One.

Can explain why the Soviet Union expanded after World War Two.

Can make a judgement supported by evidence on which is the most important reason why the Soviet Union expanded.
What is the message of this cartoon? Use your own knowledge.
Why was there a crisis in berlin and what were its effects?
Learning Objectives
Know - Features of the Berlin Crisis.

Understand - What caused the Berlin Crisis and what its consequences were.

Skills - Cause and Consequence.
Success Criteria
Can assess the significance off the Berlin Crisis in the Cold War.

Explains the reasons why the Berlin Crisis began and the consequences of the crisis.

Describe the features and chronology of the Berlin Crisis.
Separate the cards into the following table and stick in books.
Chronology of the Crisis (in correct order)
Consequences of the Crisis
TASK - Super Six!
Following the Second World War, the Allies were unable to agree upon what to do with Germany. The country was divided into four zones, one for each of the allied powers. Berlin, although it was deep within the Soviet zone was also divided into four zones.

In June 1948, Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin to prevent the establishment of a new state in western Germany. He wanted to cut off the capital of a potential West Germany from the rest of the country. He wanted to show a divided Germany would not work.
1) Give in to Stalin's demand and hand over control of West Berlin.
2) Invade the Soviet zone in Germany and blast through the blockade into Berlin.
3)Supply West Berlin by air.
What should Truman Do?
The choice is yours.
1) Separate these into long-term and short term causes.
2) Identify the trigger cause (the event led to Soviet action).
3) Name which causes you think were preconditions (those that had to be there for it to happen.)
4) Label them Soviet action, Allied action and both
5) Draw links between the causes. e.g. If X had not happened then Y could probably not have happened.
6) Explain which is the key cause and why you think so.
Extension Questions:

1) Explain the key features of the Berlin Blockade

2) Why do you think Stalin chose not to shoot down the aircraft?

3) Why is the Berlin Blockade a significant event in the Cold War?
How did developments between 1949-1955 increase East-West rivalry?
Learning Objectives
Know - What happened between 1949-1955.

Understand - How developments further increased tension.

Skills - Significance
Success Criteria
Can identify the most important con

Can explain the consequences of the establishment of Nato and the Warsaw Pact on East-West Rivalry.

Can describe developments between 1949 and 1955.
Use pages 38-40 to help you complete the following exercises.
1) Colour and label your map for the countries of NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
2) For what purpose was NATO established?
3) What were the aims of NATO?
4) Explain what the consequences of the establishment of NATO were.
5) Explain what the Warsaw Pact was and why it was established.
6) Explain what the arms race was and how it influenced relations between Superpowers.
7) List the other developments between 1949 and 1955 and explain why each would have increased tensions.
What parallels are there with what has been happening in Ukraine this week and what we are studying?
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