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Transcript of Mexico
The country, Mexico, was initially named after its capital city (Mexico City).
During the 14 - 16th centuries, when the Aztec people dominated large parts of the country, the capital city was called Mexico-Tenochtitlan.
After the Spanish conquered the city in the 16th century, they ruined it and build Mexico City on top of the Aztec capital. Mexico city was built to resemble a Spanish city.
Chocolate was discovered in Mexico and was made by the Meso-American people into a sweet beverage using natural sweeteners.
Mexico introduced chocolate, chillies and corn to the world!
The word ‘chocolate’ derives from the language of the Aztecs, Náhuatl (xocolatl : xoco, bitter + atl, water).
Ixcacao is the Mayan Goddess of chocolate. Corn (Zea maiz) was first cultivated in central Mexico.
A short story of cacao in México!
Tells the legend that Quetzalcoatl (A mexican God) gave Cacao to men as a gift.
Not only it was a food,beverage and medicine. It was also considered a currency.
One of the gifts that were given to the conquerors of America when they arrived was a brown seed that was used to elaborate a stong and energetic beverage called xocolatl. "Chocolate"
During the colony, milk was added to xocolatl and it became popular. It was prepared principally in churches.
Soon chocolate became addictive!
But it was prohibited because people would not fast during religious ceremonies.
Medicinal properties were atributed to chocolate, it was said that it caused people to become fat. Which was a good thing during that time because it was a sign of pride.
On the contrary, being slim was a sign of poverty and shame.
Chocolate soon arrived to Europe. Even though it was not very welcomed at first because it was considered too exotic, little by little it became famous as it began to be used in different desserts.
Nowadays, chocolate is part of our daily life and it can be enjoyed all around the world!
Mexico is located in the “Ring of Fire”
This area is one of the world’s most violent earthquake and volcano zones.
The Ring of Fire, contains more than 450 volcanoes and has approximately 75% of the world's active volcanoes.
Popocatépetl is considered to be the most dangerous volcano in Mexico, located only 70 km southeast of Mexico City, from where it can be seen with the right weather conditions.
Mexico City is slowly sinking!
Due to the fact that the Mexican capital was built on a lake (Texcoco), it is sinking 15-20cm a year. During the 20th century, Mexico City sunk between 9 - 11m.
The city’s infrastructure, water supplies and its irreplaceable architecture are under a constant threat. If it continues sinking the city will face serious problems.
10 mts in 100 years!
Symbol of the people's hope and the destiny of it's race.
Symbol of the blood that the national heroes dropped for their nation.
Emblem: Contains the hieroglyph that the aztecs used to present the foundation of Tenochtitlan.
"Long story - short" Aztecs who lived in
a land called Aztlan, received a message from Huitzilopochtli (God of War). He told them that they should abandon their land and look out for the "promised land" which would be full of richness and power. Whenever they found an eagle eating a snake they would know they had arrived.
After 302 years they found it. That event was considered the foundation of Mexico and it became a national symbol.
White: purity and Unity
Name: Estados Unidos Mexicanos . United Mexican States
Geographic Situation: Mexico is located in the American continent. In the Northern hemisphere of the Ecuator, and the Occidental side of the Greenwich meridian.
Size: 1 953 128 km surface + 5 073 km islands = aprox. 2 million SQ KM (13th Biggest Country)
Population: 46,507,760 habitants
Life Expectancy: 71.7 men 77.6 women
Currency : 1MXN = 0.0594 USD, 1 USD= 16.8345 MXN
1MXN = 0.0524 EUR,1 EUR = 19.0824 MXN
Languages of México
The overwhelming majority of Mexicans today speak Spanish (92%)
About 6 percent of the population speaks Spanish and indigenous languages, such as Mayan, Nahuatl and other regional languages.
Indigenous Mexican words have even become common in other languages, including English. For example, chocolate, coyote, tomato and avocado all originated in Nahuatl.
Over 60 indigenous languages are spoken in Mexico.
Only India has more Native languages!
Religion in México
Much of Mexican culture revolves around religious values and the church, as well as the concept of family and inclusiveness.
The picture above is a "Peregrinación" which is a huge part of the mexican religious traditions. It consists of a trip to a sacred place. Each year millions of people walk to the Basilica de Guadalupe to receive their blessing.
Mexicans have a strong appreciation for their family, even with their distant relatives. Members of a family are usually supportive with each other when in need.
Hosting parties at their homes plays a large part of Mexican life and making visitors feel comfortable is a large part of the values and customs of the country.
Family units are usually large, with traditional gender roles and extensive family involvement from the external members who assist one another in day to day life.
A Glance into Geography
Mexico is an immense area flanked by mountain ranges, low coastal plains, desert landscapes, and snow-capped volcanoes. Two of the highest volcanoes ( Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl) are near Mexico City.
sierra madre occidental
sierra madre oriental
Nº OF STATES : 32 + 1 FEDERAL DISTRICT
SURROUNDING OCEANS : PACIFIC,
GULF OF MXICO AND CARIBBEAN SEA.
USA in the north.
GUATEMALA & BELIZE in the south
Time to learn some Spanish!
hola! ¿cómo estas?
Mi nombre es..
¿Dónde esta el baño?
¿Qué hora es?
The other basic ingredient in all parts of Mexico is the chile pepper.Mexican food has a reputation for being very spicy, but its seasoning can be better described as strong. Many dishes also have subtle flavors.
Chiles are used for their flavors and not just their heat, with Mexico using the widest variety. If a savory dish or snack does not contain chile pepper, hot sauce is usually added, and chile pepper is often added to fresh fruit and sweets
Mexicans eat a variety of spicy foods that are often flavored with chilies. Fruits and vegetables are important in Mexico and are included in just about every meal.
Many meals are served with tortillas. tortilla is a flat bread that is made from cornmeal. Tortillas are often served fileed with meats or frijoles (beans) and cheese.
what is a tortilla??!!
Tortillas are unleavened flat breads made of flour (more common in the north) or maize (the traditional method and still the most common in the south)., water, and salt.
Tortillas are used in dishes like tacos, burritos, or quesadillas, and when they get stale they are fried and used for chips, in chilaquiles or in tortilla soup, also known as Sopa Azteca.
Mexico is the world's leading exporter of avocados.
Production generates around $800 million dollars per year and 85% of the Mexican avocados are harvested in Michoacan.
United States, Japan and Germany are the main destinations.
Chile, the Dominican Republic, Indonesia and Colombia are Mexico's strongest competitors.
AKA : beans
Beans are a part of everday eating in the Southwest. Frijoles are served either soupy in broth or mashed and fried .
with no alcohol
"Agua de Horchata"
"Agua de Jamaica"
"Agua de Tamarindo"
Are a combination of fruits, cereals, flowers, or seeds blended with sugar and water to make light non-alcoholic beverages. They are popular in Mexico, Central America,and the Caribbean.
Some of the more common flavours include tamarind, hibiscus, and agua de horchata.
Aguas frescas are sold principally by street vendors but can also be found in bodegas, restaurants and juice bars.
(Spanish "cool waters")
A TACO WITHOUT SALSA IS NOT A TACO!
TYPES OF TACOS
Taco al Pastor
Taco de canasta (basquet)
DAME OTRO TEQUILA!!!
Tequila is a regional specific name for a distilled beverage made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila.
“Tequila treats you the same way you treat it,If you aggressively slam it back, it will get mad and return the favor.”
Tequila has health benefits. Experts say that a shot before lunch can stimulate the appetite, and one after a big dinner can aid digestion. Pairing that shot with a glass of water is a good way to go.
Is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from the maguey plant (a form of agave, Agave americana) native to Mexico. The word mezcal comes from Nahuatl mexcalli "oven-cooked agave".
The maguey grows in many parts of Mexico, though most mezcal is made in Oaxaca.
"Para todo mal, Mezcal, y para todo bien, también" ("For every ill, Mezcal, and for every good as well.").
MEXICAN TRADITIONS & FESTIVITIES!
DIA DE MUERTOS
ANCIENT mesoamerican civilizations believed in the afterlife. When people died, they didn't cease to exist — instead, their soul carried on to the afterworld.The belief in the cyclical nature of life and death resulted in a celebration of death, rather than a fear of death. Death was simply a continuance of life, just on another plane of existence.
Once a year the Aztecs held a festival celebrating the death of their ancestors, while honoring the goddess Mictecacihuatl, Queen of the Underworld. The Aztecs believed that the deceased preferred to be celebrated, rather than mourned, so during the festival they first honored los angelitos, the deceased children, then those who passed away as adults.
it is believed that the deceased return to their earthly homes to visit and rejoice with their loved ones.The Days of the Dead are celebrated as a way of retaining connections with the unseen world — a world we will all return to one day.
date: November 1 and 2 of each year
location: celebrated in homes and graveyards.
In homes, people create altars to honor their deceased loved ones. In some places it is common to allow guests to enter the house to view the altar.
In graveyards, families clean the graves of their loved ones, which they then decorate with flowers, photos, candles, foods and drinks. People stay up all night in the graveyards, socializing and telling funny stories about their dead ancestors. Musicians are hired to stroll through the graveyard, playing the favorite songs of the dead.
Mexicans celebrate their country’s Independence Day with fireworks, parties (fiestas), food, dance and music on September 16. Flags, flowers and decorations in the colors of the Mexican flag – red, white and green – are seen in public areas in cities and towns in Mexico. Whistles and horns are blown and confetti is thrown to celebrate this festive occasion. "Viva Mexico" or "Viva la independencia” are shouted amidst the crowds on this day.
Most Mexicans celebrate by hanging flags all over their home and spending time with family. A feast is usually involved. If the food can be made red, white and green (like the Mexican Flag) all the better!
A pinata is a container often made of papier maché, pottery, or cloth; it is decorated, and filled with small toys or candy, or both, and then broken as part of a ceremony or celebration. Piñatas are commonly associated with Mexico.
Piñatas remain most popular during Las Posadas with birthday parties coming in second. Each participant, usually a child, will have a turn at hitting the piñata, which is hung from above on a string. The participant is blindfolded, given a wooden stick, and then spun a number of times. As the participants works to hit the piñata, another moves it to make it harder to hit. There is a time limit to any one person's attempts, which is marked out by the singing of a traditional song.
Traditionally in Mexico, especially at Christmas, piñatas are filled with fruit and candies such as guavas, oranges, jicamas, pieces of sugar cane, tejocotes and wrapped candies. Some piñatas are "traps" filled with flour, confetti or water. Special baskets of treats may be given to children who come up empty handed after a piñata is broken. These are called colaciónes and are given to prevent hurt feelings