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DEVIANCE & SOCIAL CONTROL
Transcript of DEVIANCE & SOCIAL CONTROL
SOCIAL CONTROL WHAT IS DEVIANCE? According to any standard dictionary, “to deviate” is “to stray as from a path or standard” •Deviance equals norm violation. * As defined in the text Sociology the Essentials by M. Anderson and H. Taylor, deviance is behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms. •Deviance may be positive or negative: Negative Deviance: Behavior that fails to meet accepted norms, e.g. murder, robbery, burglary.
Positive Deviance: Behavior leading to over-conformity with social norms, e.g. anorexia, bulimia, etc. •It can range from criminal behavior (generally accepted)
to wearing heavy makeup (deviant only to certain segment). Deviants –
the people who violate shared social expectations Examples
of deviance Conformity – when people follow the norms of their social group or society o Formal deviance is behavior that breaks laws or rules.
o Informal deviance is behavior that violates customary norms. Types of Deviance: The
of Deviance If norm violations are widespread,
long-term and more extreme, deviance
can disrupt, establish, or lead to the complete
breakdown of social systems. Social Dysfunctions: While traditionally viewed as
a sign of social disorganization,
deviance performs various
social functions: Social Functions: ** It can define the limits
of social tolerance; ** It can increase the solidarity
and integration of a group; ** It can serve as a “safety valve”
for social discontent; ** It can indicate defects
or inadequacies in the existing
social organization; ** It can set in motion steps that
lead to social change. Theories
of Deviance Psychodynamic
Theories Psychodynamic Control Theories
* Theories that consider the sources of variation in the impulse and control variables within the individual itself. o Richard L. Jenkins
o Personality is conceived of having a central core of primitive impulses corresponding to the Freudian id.
o In the normal adult or child this is surrounded by a shell of inhibition, the Freudian superego. Control Theories
* Control conception of human
motivation built around
2 sets of variables
o Control Psychoanalytical Instinct Theories
o These theories assume that all men are endowed by nature with aggressive, destructive, or other anti-social drives or instincts.
o All members of our species include a bundle of aggressive, destructive energies called the id.
* The id is not learned. It is just there.
* As we grow we learn to control it
* Controls - ego and superego Jenkins Typology o 3 patterns of maladjustment commonly found among children.
*Type I – individual with excessive development of the shell of inhibition.
*Type II – inadequate shell of inhibition. Opposite of Type I.
*Type III – normal shell of inhibition towards members of the in-group.
o Hewitt and Jenkin
*Attempt to assign problem children to these types. Types of Faulty
Control Structures Superego defect Example:
Superego lacunae are explained as the result of the acceptance of standards of parents who explicitly support the canons of conventional morality, but harbor secret wishes for certain kinds of forbidden conduct. Topic of continuing fascination – psychopathic personality
* Some may be intelligent, charming, ingratiating, prudent and more or less successful while some are inept, dull, and always in trouble.
* Similarities – if deterred from deviant behavior, it is by lack of inclination or fear of consequences.
* One theory states that it is due to the failure to establish in the first few years of life a secure, satisfying relationship with affectionate, nurturing, parental figures. o Ego defect
* “Ego is a substructure of the personality and is defined by its functions” – Hartmann
* A weak ego signifies an inability to subordinate impulses, to defer gratification, and to adhere tenaciously to a rationally planned course of action. Frustration – Aggression Theories
o Stems from the work of Freud
o Most systematically elaborated by Dollard and others.
o It states that frustration typically produces aggression
o It also states that aggression typically results from frustration
o Emphasizes on situations/experiences that may provoke aggression
o A study on suicide and homicide by Henry and Short illustrates the use of this theory
* Suicide – direction of aggression – self
* Homicide – direction of aggression – others Appraisal of
Control Theories Seven Limitations o Takes too dismal a
view of conformity o Takes too dismal a
view of deviance o The frustration – aggression theory
asserts that all frustration produces
aggression and all aggression proceeds
from frustration o Control theories tend to assume that not only the motive or wish behind the deviant act is itself deviant, but also that it is closer to “original” or “unsocialized” human nature than conforming impulses o Conception of personality as a vessel.
Control theories state that a deviant
act stems from one thing Kinds of people theories. o In all scientific theorizing there is a danger of tautology, of assuming that one has discovered something that explains something else when in fact he has only given another name to that which is to be explained Anomie
nomos - "law" In Durkheim's usage,
anomie referred to a situation
in which cultural norms
because of rapid change. Example: Anomic suicide can occur during
a major economic depression, when people aren't able
to achieve the goals that they
have learned to pursue, but it can also occur
when the economy experiences a boom
and suddenly the sky's the limit--
people don't know how to limit their goals
and be satisfied with their achievements. Robert Merton used the term ANOMIE
to describe the differences between
socially accepted goals
and the availability of means
to achieve those goals. Example: Attaining wealth is a major goal of Americans,
but not all Americans possess the means to do this,
especially members of minority and disadvantaged groups.
Those who find the “road to riches” closed to them experience anomie, because an obstacle has thwarted their
pursuit of a socially approved goal. When this happens,
these individuals may employ deviant behaviors
to attain their goals, retaliate against society,
or merely “make a point.” Social
Control A. Merriam-Webster Dictionary:
“Noun. The rules and standards of society
that circumscribe individual action through
the inculcation of conventional sanctions
and the imposition
of formalized mechanisms.” B. William Ogburn and Meyer Nimkoff (Society):
"Social Control is the way in which entire social order coheres and maintain itself-how it operates as a whole, as a changing equilibrium.”(Society p137) C. Paul Landis (Social Control):
Social Control is “a social process by which individualism made group responsive, and by which social organization is built and maintained." (Social Control.p.4) D. Frederick Lumely (Means of Social Control)
Social Control is "the practice of putting forth directive, stimuli or wish-patterns, their accurate transmission to and adoption by, other whether voluntarily or involuntarily."(Means of Social Control p13) II. Unified Definition
Social Control is a way by which a society can be controlled through laws or norms in which their actions would be limited.
It is a standard or policy that controls the behavior of individuals in a society.
Social control means, control of individual behavior by society, and that control of social institutions should be in the interest and welfare of the whole society. Some warnings and directions of prohibited activities are an example of social control. Social control also refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, leading to conformity and compliances to the rules of a given society or social group. Many mechanisms of social control are cross-cultural, if only in the control mechanisms used to prevent the establishment of chaos or anomie. Some theorists, such as Emile Durkheim, refer to this form of control as regulation. Characteristics of
Social Control Influenced Widely Exercised Promote Welfare Why does social control exist? Everyone have individual desires, ambitions, dreams, beliefs and ideologies. Sometimes, these things clash between different individuals. Social Control was made to create harmony and peace. We need a universal standard of action to promote peace. To maintain the society effectively, it needs some rules and regulation. In other words, behavior pattern is essential for the society to work and maintain order. For these rules to be followed, implementation is needed. That is why we have authorities, for example, the government and the church (in some people). The government creates laws for the welfare of its citizens and to maintain order while the laws of the church are for the maintenance of the moral values of the citizens. Social Control: System Rules- behavior that should be followed Sanctions-rewards or punishments Subjects- the ones who follow the rules to create harmony Enforcers- the ones who set laws, policies, norms, and traditions that are carried out by the subjects. E.g. law-makers, government, set traditions (folkways), etc Rules a. Laws-sanctioned by the state.
b. Norms-sanctioned by the traditions that holds no legal position in the system. Levels of Social Control (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Contoller Rules Sanction CombinedSystem First Party (actor) Second Party
Control (person acted upon) Third part control
Social forces Third Party
Organization Third Party
Control State Personal ethics Self-sanction Self-control Contracts Personal self-help Promisee-Enforced Contracts Norms Vicarious self-help Informal Control Organizational rules Organizational enforcement Organizational control Law State enforcement Legal system 1. First Party Control(actor)
2. Second Party Control (receiver)
3. Third Party Control (external) Direct sanctions
Indirect sanctions Types of Social Control 1. Direct and Indirect Control 2. Positive and Negative Means 3. Social Control through Force and Symbol 4. Conscious and Unconscious Control 5. Formal and Informal Control Bio-anthropological Theories Theories that determine types of people disposed as deviant through recognizing measurable anatomical characteristics. Kinds of Bio-anthropological Theories Lombrosian Positivism
Cesare Lombroso“Positive school of criminology” – a reaction to the classical school, which assumed that men were rational and endowed with free will.
Lombrosian Criminology - the idea of there being a standard physical criminal type
He compared large samples of prisoners with noncriminal (in respect to attributes considered by Lombroso to be the stigmata of atavism and degeneracy.) He concluded that there was no distinct physical criminal type. Hooton’s Criminal Anthropology
He concluded that different types of offenders tend to differ in body measurements, and that criminals as a group are morally, intellectually, morphologically, and genetically degenerate compared to civilian.
The key to any really decisive attack on crime lies in eugenics (social control of reproduction). Constitutional Typologies
- Classify men on the basis of overall patterning or configuration of bodily structure
It is correlated with characteristics of (1) physiological and chemical functioning, and (2) personality and temperament (external expressions of the former). William H. Sheldon
His typology of body types is based on the relative predominance of digestive viscera (softness and roundness - endomorphy), of bone and muscle (hardness and rectangularity - mesomorphy), and of neural and cutaneous tissue (leanness and fragility - ectomorphy).
Endomorph – easygoing, sociable, self-indulgent
Mesomorph – restless, energetic, insensitive
Ectomorph – introspective, sensitive, nervous
Mesomorphy did not produce delinquency, but it wasthe constitutional background most favorable to delinquency. Control Theory: Mesomorphs need not necessarily be delinquents and criminals; if intelligent and well situated, they may turn their predatory bents to good account by becoming successful generals, politicians or captains of industry. Sheldon and Eleanor Gluek
They compared 500 delinquents with 500 non-delinquent controls. They compared not only the frequency with which each of 67 personality traits and 42 socio-cultural factors was associated with each of the body types within delinquent and non-delinquent groups.
They found, indeed, more of the delinquents were predominantly mesomorphic. (40% were not.) 1. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Definition: Social Control.
2. Ogburn,W. and Nimkoff, M.(p137-138) Society.
3. Landis, P. (1980) (p 3-5) Social Control: Social Organization and Disorganization in Process. New York: University Microfilms.
4. Lumley, F. (1925) (p 13) Means of Social Control. New York: The Century
5. Matza, David. Becoming Deviant
6. Horton and Hunt. Sociology
7. Taylor, H.; Anderson, M. Sociology the Essentials
8. Cohen, Albert. Deviance and Control
9.Foundations of Behavioral Sciences: Readings in Social Sciences. CSSP
10. In Conflict and Order: Understanding Society by D. Stanley Eitzen Cultural-Transmission Theory * Explains how deviance learned; why some are deviants while others are not * De-emphasize the linkage between knowledge and attitudes regarding particular forms of deviance and other elements of the personality. * Emphasize the forms of deviance’s linkage to corresponding knowledge and attitudes in the cultural milieu of the person * Explains that deviant behavior is a product of knowledge, beliefs and attitudes relevant to that behavior. * Clifford Shaw & Henry McKay (1929) – “If the deviant behavior already exists as a cultural pattern in some group or community, it will tend to be transmitted to the newcomers and the young.” * Edwin Sutherland – Differential Association Theory; “Deviant behavior is learned through a process of differential association.” ; Deviant behavior is learned by association with other individuals in a process of social interaction. * Factors that influence the effect of association with deviants: > INTENSITY of contacts with the deviants > AGE of exposure to deviants > RATIO of contacts with deviants to contacts with conformists Labeling Theory * Deviance is relative. A person becomes deviant only when the label of “deviance” has been successfully applied to other people.
* Two people who break the same norm may be labeled differently. Degrees of deviance: > Primary deviance – may pass unnoticed; individuals concerned do not regard themselves as deviants and are not regarded as such by others.
> Secondary deviance – persons who are labeled as deviants tend to become locked into a deviant behavior pattern https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:SSJtxBMnhmAJ:www.stegen.k12.mo.us/tchrpges/sghs/cwiseman/documents/Chapter7deviance.ppt+anomie+theory+powerpoint&hl=fil&gl=ph&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESg2I0Zo9CH43sGq86stRx8qQrIbynWcxRVosgv0EdFrYhpWQ9kiD2ufOxoYhbAh7gJLfNbuj5zTj2fTQOxxVf9d2ocTe52hPWHM19TwPX15WY8Nv-Ed5aRwfgYytIDx06c8yuMb&sig=AHIEtbQEdTRT5oTU0dI55QiQfi07fuoj3Q
<http://www.brianpaciotti.com/SOC157%20Lecture%208%20W.pdf> <http://studylecturenotes.com/social-sciences/sociology/281-types-of-social-control-> 6. Control by Constructive and Exploitative Means 7. Real and Artificial Control