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Copy of How have art movements influenced graphic design?
Transcript of Copy of How have art movements influenced graphic design?
'Tropon' by Henry van de Velde, 1898 Poster by Horace Taylor for London Transport, 1926 Poster by Man Ray for London Transport, 1938 Poster by Cassandre, 1927 Poster by Georges de Feure, 1894 Poster by Lucian Bernhard, 1906 Poster by Edward McKnight Kauffer, 1919 Poster by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1910 Surrealism Pop art 1980s - 2011 Dada Posters by Kurt Schwitters Bauhaus 'Ver Sacrum' by Koloman Moser, 1903 Street art "...Art in advertising is a type of art seen by everybody...It is street art pure and simple." - Albert Hahn Cubism Expressionism Poster by William Nicholson and James Pryde, 1894 Poster by Adolf Strakhov, 1920 Poster by Alexander Rodchenko, 1925 'Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge' by El Lissitzky, 1919 'Six Girls Seeking Shelter' by Georgii and Vladimir Stenberg, 1927 Poster from See Red Women's Workshop, c. 1970s
Poster by Herbert Bayer, 1935 Poster by Salvador Dali, c. 1960s Op art Postmodernism Unknown artist, 1969 The accesibility of poster making equipment has meant that since the 1960s, graphic designers professional or otherwise have been able to disseminate political propaganda in the form of posters. Although these postersdiffer from from the Soviet Constructionist posters they still reflect the idea that art should represent political ideas and help promote social causes. Many use bold, expressive colours and symbolism to stress the importance of the cause to the viewer rather than depict reality. Poster by Shepard Fairey, 2008 Poster by Paul Rand, 1950 Contemporary graphic design draws on practices established by the early 20th century modernists such as the application of reductive, geometrical shapes. Works such as the Black Swan posters are evocative of Art Deco and Constructivist images but still manage to look new and dynamic. The world of fine art has and continues to influence graphic designers aesthetically as well as in a philosophical sense. Poster by Jan Lenica, 1964 http://www.moma.org/explore/multimedia/audios/11/1146# 'The Voice of Freedom in the German Night on Radio Wave 29.8' by John Heartfield, 1937
http://www.designboom.com/eng/interview/glaser_evolution_mov.html Poster by Keith Haring, 1986
In the same year Haring painted a mural inspired by the crack epidemic and its effect on New York City Poster design by Phil Gips, 1968 This is an excerpt from a lecture given by Marianne Eggler in which she discusses how the surrealist artist Joan Miró's unconventional approach to painting has impacted graphic desugn Detail from 'Medicine' by Gustav Klimt, 1900-1907 'Three Modern Beauties' by by Utamaro Kitagawa, date unknown I want to explore how art movements from the 1890s to the present day have impacted graphic design, in particular, the design of posters. The investigation will not only focus on the direct visual impact but also consider how the principles and philosophies of certain movements (stated in the manifestos of some avant garde movements, for instance) have been applied to poster design. I have chosen to explore the impact of modern art movements on poster design as posters combine a variety of graphics and are intended to be seen by all members of the public as opposed to book jackets or record covers. My intention is to challenge the view that commercial art has intrinsically less value than fine art displayed in galleries and I will do this by exhibiting exceptional works of poster art. I think that many people believe fine art has little or no relevance in to their lives despite the fact we come into contact with design products influenced by it, like posters on a daily basis. Indeed, many of the movements I explored were born out of a desire to represent the modern world and how it was changing; for example the Futurists’ embrace of technology or the Dada artists’ hatred of war. The reason I decided to focus on late 19th, 20th and 21st century movements is because mass production of posters as a ‘medium for visual communication’ began in the 1870s yet despite the emergence of new technologies such as the internet, the poster is still a vital tool for visual communication in a time when the printed word is in decline thanks to its immediacy and the lasting effect of the combination of text and image on the viewer. I think the appeal of posters is that they are able to communicate a message quickly and publicly unlike other mediums such as fine art or books. This makes them an ideal form of communication for everyone from governments to film promoters. A Japanese influence is evident in the Post-Impressionist posters of Toulouse-Lautrec and others as a result of Japan’s borders reopening in 1868. Ukiyo-e (‘Pictures of the floating world’), a popular Japanese art form had its features appropriated by European artists were a use of flat colours and figures with no use of tone or shadow, bright colours, a lack of perspective and a black contour outline. The Ukiyo-e woodblock posters were even similar in terms of subject matter to Toulouse-Lautrec’s work, portraying the popular dancers and theatre actors of the day in their respective countries. The posters of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Jules Chéret (who developed the three stone process used in lithography) proved to be hugely popular with the public and were featured in exhibitions around Europe. Toulouse-Lautrec’s posters were instrumental in establishing the idea that posters could be legible and interesting to look at and I think that his use of reduction contributed to the success of his poster art. The use of high key colours were not only used to get the attention of passersby but embodied the spirit of the music hall and theatre. Other poster artists of the 1880s took influence from older European styles. Elements of Pre-Raphaelite and Byzantine art were incorporated into the posters of artists such as Alphonse Mucha who developed the Art Nouveau style as a reaction against the art produced by students of the European art academies. The above poster was by Koloman Moser in 1908, in a style reminiscent of Gustav Klimt's paintings. The Vienna Secession involved architects and designers as well as artists who intended to elevate the status of design to that of fine art and to make art more accessible in the form of design. The concept was originated by William Morris who, inspired by his study of socialism, sought a return to the medieval notion of art being created by the artisan as well as the artist. The works of Klimt in particular were controversial and the critical response of the movement otherwise was positive. The designs of Moser and fellow secessionist Alfred Roller are significantly different from Art Nouveau posters as we begin to get a sense of the artists developing a style which used geometric instead of organic shapes. The balance created by the symmetrical layout of Moser's posters is hardly impacted by the use of bold and curved shapes in the typography. The natural forms in Moser's images have been abstracted and simplified to mirror the shapes of bicycles, the newly introduced motorcar and other technologies used in the very early 20th century, furthering the notion that the Secessionists embraced the "spirit of the 'new'" (John Barncoat, 'Posters: A Concise History', 1972). Their use of colour, especially gold and warm colours is redolent of Byzantine art, suggesting that there is a link with the decadence of the past and the glamour of the present.
Personally, I think the posters do not really represent form and function combined harmoniously as the posters seem to be art pieces and were not considered with graphic communication in mind; the typography of the posters bears little relation to the style of the images in the poster from 1908. German poster art began to feature much more simplified forms from 1906 onwards as advertisers realised the need to have a distinctive poster to stand out amongst the others it was pasted next to in urban areas. The Sachplakat ('fact poster') developed by Bernhard was radical in its use of flat colour, minimal text and reductive shapes. Moreover, it differentiated commercial art from decorative art yet Berhnhard's designs were poorly received initially in his homeland and in the United States. Preceding this style was the work of William Nicholson and James Pryde (the Beggarstaff brothers) who received few commissions during their working period. It was not until the 1920s and 1930s that designers would widely use bold graphic imagery in posters. Die Brücke (The Bridge) was an expressionist movement that moved away from the curved, flowing forms and aesthetic of Art Nouveau but retained the connection between man and nature. The aim of the expressionists was to evoke emotion through their work rather than portray realistic or idealised forms. Brücke artists presented their work to the public in exhibitions and promotional posters were highly representative of their 'primitive' style. Visually Brücke appears to be a reaction against Art Nouveau; the coarse brushstrokes and high key colour of the poster to the left contrast with the decorative flourishes and calligraphic typography of the Tropon poster, for instance. The Post Impressionist and expressionist movements had their origins in romanticism which was a reaction against the Industrial Revolution and embraced the natural world. By 1909 when Futurism was conceived, artists were starting to glorify technology and strove to capture movement in their works to symbolise a literal breaking away from the past. The avant garde movements established shortly before the First World War were characterised by abstraction mainly in the form of reduction. Many of these were not limited to fine art; movements incorporated architecture, design and even poetry. Surrealism explored the workings of the subconscious and by nature it was an absurdist, non-rational movement. The representation of imagination and dreams in surrealist works seems incongruous with the rationality of the graphic images in posters of the 1920s; however, once the movement gained popularity in the following decade commercial images began to appear in a similar style. Herbert Bayer, known for utilising a reductive minimalist style in his work for the Bauhaus, used photomontage to create surrealist images. In his poster design for Adrinol nose drops (1935), Bayer uses a surrealist influenced image to communicate a simple message: "The poster became a tool of clarifying the meaning and the application of the medical anatomy" (Arthur A Cohen, 'Herbert Bayer: The Complete Works', 1984). 'Pépa bonafé' poster by Jean Carlu, 1928
The reductive style of the Cubists was a reaction against the preconceived notion that artists should paint from nature and employ the techniques of applying perspective and proportion. Like the post-impressionists they were inspired by non-European art and the influence of African art of cubism was profound. The cubist style was mainly applied to paintings, sculpture and architecture but cubist philosophy was also used in the field of graphic design. Designers found that they were free to explore new forms and were not restricted in terms of spatial organisation. Posters influenced by Cubism were marked by their unorthodox compositions and relative minimalism. Jean Carlu realised the need to get rid of unnecessary elements in his design work in order for the public to understand their messages quickly. Another poster designer who applied a Cubist style to his work was Adolphe Cassandre who used airbrushed, streamlined shapes and sharp letterforms to represent a truly modern style of graphic design. Ever since the influence of abstract art manifested itself in the poster designs of Carlu and Cassandre, graphic designers have been using simplified forms and geometric shapes to make dynamic posters. Constructivism was a response to the political changes in Russia in the 1920s. The Bolshevik revolution eliminated the bourgeois from society and artists and designers were considering how they could make their work reflect a progressive, industrial nation. Fine art was rejected as it did not serve a social purpose or stimulate social change. Poster art was dominated by the use of photomontage (first utilised by the Cubists), striking colours (especially red, the colour of communism) and sans serif fonts designed for legibility. Early Constructivist graphics revealed their Cubist influences. Dramatic scales and juxtaposition of photographed and drawn elements were combined in the posters of Vladimir and Georgii Stenberg, and El Lissitzky giving them an abstract feel which has plenty of impact on the viewer. Constructivism was initially supported by the Bolsheviks until Stalin, who preferred Socialist Realism, came to power. Constructivism was a major influence on the Bauhaus, a design school whose approach was instrumental in the development of graphic design. 'Tempo, Tempo Progress, Culture' by Marianne Brandt, 1927 'The Berlin Wall' by Mia Porter, 2011 Bauhaus style had an immense effect on modern graphic design. Bauhaus teachers had a radical approach to typography and this was crucial in the development of sans-serif typography. Bauhaus typography featured simplified geometric forms which, according to László Moholy-Nagy, could provide "clarity of the message in its most emphatic form". The Bauhaus members’ desire for clarity in communication could arguably have been a reaction against what many of the artists and designers viewed as a breakdown in communication among European nations in the years preceding World War I, helping to cause the conflict. Herbert Bayer expanded upon Moholy-Nagy’s philosophy and insisted typography as the graphic form of communication should do away with ornate serifs and lower and uppercase forms. These ideas were further developed in the 1950s when a minimalist style known as the International Typographic Style. The rationalist and ‘clean’ typography of the posters made by these designers reflected the modernist aesthetic of ‘reduction to essentials’ yet the geometric, asymmetric compositions mirrored the style of radical paintings made by Wassily Kandinsky. Poster by Michael English, 1967 Ironically, given that Pop Art appropriated images created by graphic designers in advertisements and on packaging, underground designers in the 1960s created works that were also inspired by popular culture. Younger designers reacted against the standard Swiss style and appopriatedimagery from historical styles such as Art Nouveau and used 'psychedelic' bright colours and organic, flowing forms. 'End Bad Breath' by Seymour Chwast (Push Pin Studios), 1967 Poster art had undergone significant changes by the 1960s and many were considered artworks. The graphic designers and illustrators abstracted the human form and used colour expressively to articulate political, sometimes radical ideas. Poster artists working in the psychedelic style drew on forms from Art Nouveau (which was by then a very old fashioned style of graphic design) and utilised various bright colours to differentiate themselves from mainstream designers. Poster by Milton Glaser, 1967 In this interview, graphic designer Milton Glaser talks about the development of his style from the start of his career to today The composition and use of colour in this poster create an eerie effect which reminds me of the 1852 painting 'Ophelia' by John Everett Millais. Millais's painting famously depicts the character's death and so I think the designer carefully considered the image that would be used to represent the film, suggesting it is about a physical or metaphorical death. Following the Pop Art tradtion of appropriating images from popular culture, Shepard Fairey is a contemporary artist and poster designer whose work has been recieved with a mixed reaction as there have been issues regarding the legality of his appopriation of images. The visual style of his posters owes a great debt to street art, favouring the reductive elements of stencil art while combining them with typography influenced by the constructivist movement perhaps due to its political nature. Poster by Emory Douglas, 1969 Poster by Paul Smith, 2011 Posters by La Boca, 2010 Poster by Niklaus Troxler, 1990 Herbert Matter was influenced by the techniques used by Dada and Surrealist artists and developed a style of graphic design using photomontage. The gravure process which was used to print the poster to the right. Artwork by Bansky, 2006 In conclusion, I have learnt from my research how over time, graphic designers have applied the aesthetics and principles of various art movements in posters and the effect of this. It has been most interesting to learn how designers have been less obviously influenced by art movements and making connections between the art and design worlds. The exploration has also made me think about the individual posters I have looked at and how little connects some of them aside from the fact that they are of the same medium. Could the 'Hope' poster be considered 'art' in the way Koloman Moser's work could be? Ultimately, the greatest examples of poster design have been created with legibility in mind.
In my own work, I would like to experiment using the same principles and similar influences as some of the artists and designers I have looked at, and possibly combine contrasting styles of poster design in a poster. Some artists and designers incorporate the aesthetics of older poster art while using the very same processes originally used. Unlike the carefully designed, computer rendered poster designs, these posters created by Music and Jemma Lewis have not been produced with mass manufacturing in mind and are reminiscent of the organic, flowing forms of the Art Nouveau posters. Furthermore, it would seem that the posters have not been designed to appear on a computer screen, defying the concept of functionability in design.