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Restless Earth Timeline

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Helene Grousset-Rees

on 12 November 2014

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Transcript of Restless Earth Timeline

Restless Earth Timelines
Indian Ocean
Key Facts
Time of main tremor: 0758 local time 26/12/2004

Magnitude 9 "megathrust"

Scale of slippage:
30 kilometres below seafloor
1200 km stretch of Indian plate thrust up to 20 metres under Burma plate, raising seafloor by several metres

Historical ranking: 4th largest since 1900 and world's biggest since a magnitude 9.2 earthquake struck Alaska's Prince William Sound in 1964

Energy released: Equivalent to explosion of 475,000 kilotons of TNT, or 23,000 Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs

Height and speed of tsunamis:
In open ocean, just 50 centimetres high but travelling at up to 800 km/h.
waves grew and slowed as the sea shallowed towards coasts.
up to 10 metres on coastline of Sumatra near the epicentre, 4 metres in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Somalia

Distance waves travelled inland: Up to 2000 metres

Number of countries damaged: 13, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, The Maldives and Somalia

Date of last major tsunami in the Indian Ocean: 1945
Fatalities: min 226,000 dead, including
166,000 in Indonesia
38,000 in Sri Lanka
16, 000 in India
5300 in Thailand

injured: Over 500,000

Potential additional deaths from infectious diseases 150,000

Number of people affected: Up to 5 million people lost homes, or access to food and water

Number of people left without the means to make a living: One million

Estimated cost of tsunami early warning technology in Indian Ocean: $20 million

Estimated cost of aid and reconstruction following tsunami: $7.5 billion

Total international aid promised to Tsunami-ravaged nations $7 billion
5000 foreign tourists killed

Extensive destruction and damage of tourism infrastructure

5 World Heritage Sites destroyed or damaged, including:
Old Town of Galle in Sri Lanka
Tropical Rainforest of Sumatra in Indonesia
Sun Temples of Konarak in India

Long term: Mixed impacts on long term growth
Transportation and tourism in Eastern Japan affected for several weeks following earthquake due to power shortages and damage to infrastructure.
Source: Japan-guide (updated 17.11.12) ‘Earthquake and Tsunami update’ [Accessed online: japan-guide.com 14/11/12]

Matsushima, one of the top tourist destinations in Tohoku, suffered damage
Source: Seejapan (23.2.12) ‘1st anniversary of the great East Japan earthquake’ [Accessed online: Seejapan.co.uk 14/11/12]

beach resort of Okumatsushima, once a thriving stop on Japanese tourist trail virtually wiped off the surface of Japan by the tsunami.
Hotels have emptied and some have even shut down as foreigners flee country from fear of radioactive fallout from power plant.
Source: Chen (2011) Japans triple disaster impacts domestic and global tourism, Travel weekly Asia, pp8 [Accessed online: Fondation-accor.com 14/11/12]
Tourism impact
15854 dead, 3167 missing and 26992 injured across twenty prefectures.
Ruined >125000 buildings.
long blackouts for > 4.4 million buildings and left 1.5 million buildings out of water for days.
Explosion and demolition of the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant (Fukushima Daiichi):
radioactive contamination near plant’s area
irreversible damages to environment
one the most significant issues of this catastrophe
ranked 7 (most severe level for nuclear power plant) based on International Nuclear Event Scale.
Over 1000 aftershocks after main shock with magnitude as high as 7.1 in cities such as Tokyo
Source: Zaré and Afrouz (2012) ‘Crisis Management of Tohoku; Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, 11 March 2011’ Iranian J Publ Health, 41:6, Pg12 [Accessed online: Journals.tums.ac.ir 14/11/12]

Japan’s government estimated damage at as much as 25 trillion yen ($309 billion).
Source: BBC news (23.03.11) ‘Japan says quake rebuilding to cost as much as 25tn Yen’ [Accessed online: BBC.co.uk 14/11/12]
Impact of the Japan earthquake
9.0 Magnitude
11th March 2011
Struck East coast of Honshu
05:46am, UK time – 14:46pm local time.
Depth: 32km – 19.9 miles at the hypocenter.
Source: USGS (updated 27.10.12) ‘Magnitude 9.0 - NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN’ [Accessed online: usgs.gov 14/11/12]
Largest recorded in history.
lasted approximately 3 minutes.
Caused 130 km long by 159 km wide rupture zone on pacific plate subduction zone.
followed by huge tsunami with > 40 meter waves
most important destructive seismic event of the beginning of the twenty first century in advanced industrial world.
Source: Zaré and Afrouz (2012) ‘Crisis Management of Tohoku; Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, 11 March 2011’ Iranian J Publ Health, 41:6, Pg12 [Accessed online: Journals.tums.ac.ir 14/11/12]
1,666 metres tall
only erupted twice
March 2010
April 2010 - most damaging
volcanic ash formed from explosive eruptions with particles as hard as knife blades
Airspace closed for 12 days
Airspace closed for 6 days
small rocks & glass risk of getting into engines
Cost to airlines: £1.1 Billion (compensation)
1.2m passengers affected per day
120000-150000 Brits stranded abroad
11/3/11 2:46pm local time
8.9 magnitude earthquake triggered huge tsunami swept inland near city of Sendai in Miyagi prefecture.
The earthquake occurred as a result of thrust faulting on or near the subduction zone interface plate boundary between the Pacific and North America plates. (USGS, 11.03.11)
According to scientists Japan moved approximately 8 feet (2.4m) closer to North America and the force of the quake had caused the Earth to shift between 4 and 6.5 inches (10-16cm) on its axis.
quake and subsequent tsunami led to over 18,000 deaths.
2,184 people still missing 18 months on.
In places the tsunami waves reached as far as six miles (10k) inland and entire towns such as Minami Sanriku have virtually disappeared.
As a result of the tsunami, Japan also faced a nuclear disaster after reactors at Fukushima power plant were damaged in the floods.
Although relatively unaffected during the initial earthquake, Tokyo continues to experience strong aftershocks and scientists have warned that another powerful earthquake could hit the city very soon.
In a speech to the country, Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan called the disaster the 'worst crisis since World War II'.
Stringent seismic building codes and early warning system prevented many deaths from the earthquake.
In April 2011, tourism numbers fell by over 60% compared to the year before. They are yet to recover to pre-tsunami levels, despite a new 12.1tn yen ($157bn; £100bn) budget for the reconstruction
The disaster even had a significant knock-on effect in other countries, with fewer Japanese tourists travelling abroad.
In the weeks after the tsunami, Kasikorn Research Centre predicted £650m of Thailand's tourism revenue would be lost because of the situation in Japan
The government did look at ways of including free flights to increase tourists to come back to japan.
Beach resort of Okumatsushima wiped from map.
Train station left a jumbled mess.
Train tracks torn and twisted.
Broken metal pieces from shipping container lies in beach.
Dramatic cliffs on the island of Miyatoshima cut off.
Nuclear emergency at Fukushima saw many foreign tourists to cancel trips.
Tanpo no Yado hotel chain said there was "no prospect" of resuming operations in Okumatsushima.
Indonesia sits above the "Ring of Fire:
series of fault lines
make archipelago nation of approx. 18,000 islands prone to volcanic and seismic activity.

Roger Musson, a seismologist from the British Geological Survey, said:
where ground had been pushed under the continental plate, "flipping up" the seabed.
"It seems to be a large earthquake within the Indian Plate and the plate has broken in a sort of lateral way,"
"It's a sort of tearing earthquake, and this is much less likely to cause a tsunami because it's not displacing large volumes of water.”

US Geological Survey (USGS) measured the center of the earthquake at a depth of 33km (20 miles), about 495km from Banda Aceh.
Aceh: how did it Occur?
Tremors lasting for as long as five minutesfelt as far away as
Sri Lanka
Sutopo, a spokesman for Indonesia's disaster mitigation agency, said electricity had been cut off. Traffic jams were reported in Aceh, where people scrambled for higher ground as sirens mingled with sounds from the mosques.
Ten meter tall waves passed northern tip of island to race south down the straits of Malacca and strike along the northeast coast as far as as east of Lhokseumawe.
residents forced to evacuate the place.
What physically happened
The UN estimates: 655,000 people homeless and sheltering in scattered refugee camps across the province.

Destroyed coastline, concrete pads, several numbers of bridges collapsed, and lack access of roads.

As of January 23, 2005 the Health Ministry reported 173,981 dead. On 25 January Health Minister Fadilah Supari updated the estimated death total to 250,000.
General Physical Impact
“I think this is awesome!” Ponny said. “The people in this ship, nobody die, so this is a miracle.”Ponny is among the growing numbers of tourists who have come to Aceh some seven years after the tsunami to see the relics of destruction. Around the wreckage, facilities have sprung up, with viewing platforms, drink vendors, and snack shops.
Petriani and her sister have opened a popular noodle shop under the beached boat. Petriani said after the tsunami this place became very well-known.“That’s why my sister and I took the place. And word of mouth spread quickly, so people know the place and it’s easy to find us here,” Petriani said.
“I didn’t expect it, actually, how it looked like,” said Erlbrich Elsenga, who’s here from the Netherlands, looking up at the fishing boat on the house. “It’s different from what I expected, it is a big boat. I thought it was maybe a small boat on top of a small house, but really big.”
Officials say more tourists come to see the aftermath of the tsunami than come for the area’s wide, sandy beaches.
Creation of spiritual tourism. Yusny Saby, a professor at the State Institute of Islamic Studies in Aceh, said it may sound morbid, but it’s actually very healing. Saby said. “If it were not for the tsunami, we would have still been in war. So the tsunami is a sort of blessing in disguise. We lost a lot, but it speeded up the process of bringing peace.”The peace came after a nearly 30-year civil war between Acehnese rebels and the government of Indonesia. And that’s become another draw for tourists.
How did the Tsunami
Affect Tourism in Aceh?
20/03/2012 Guerrero Oaxaca

Duration 40-300 seconds

Magnitude of 7.4

Situated atop three of the large tectonic plates that constitute the earth's surface, Mexico is one of the most seismologically active regions on earth. The motion of these plates causes earthquakes and volcanic activity.

US president's daughter, 13-year-old Malia Obama, on school trip in Oaxaca. A White House official said she was safe and had never been in danger.
Some rural areas affected by over 30,000 houses damaged or destroyed.
At least 800 houses were damaged in Guerrero state.

828 after shocks.

Casualties: 48 deaths 11 people injured.

125,000 people without power.

About 40 passengers stranded for a short time on the Mexico City airport. The airport was closed for a while.

Mobile phone networks affected, people had trouble contacting loved ones.
Tourism impact

The 7.4-magnitude earthquake that struck the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica did not significantly disrupt tourism operations in the country, the Costa Rican Association of Tour Operators and the Costa Rican Chamber of Hotels, reports that “tourism is operating normally throughout the country.”

Source: USGS http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2012/usc0008m6h/#details
Christchurch Earthquake New Zealand Feb 2011
• 6.3 magnitude earthquake
21 of February 2011
large aftershocks felt in December
main parts of city & surrounding areas
severe infrastructure damage
many schools closed.
over a hundred & thousands of causalities
• main part of city considered rebuild red zone
need for complete redesign in future
estimated repair cost 40bn NZ dollars/£20.81bn
Impacts on Tourism
many of the hotels were damaged
room occupancy decreased by fifty per cent.
main convention centre was badly damaged
big loss for the city.
Tourists beginning to revisit area
lack of tourism from Australia.
Mount St Helens

Washington, USA
Earthquake triggered a huge landslide unleashing a sideways blast
Clouds of hot gas, ash and rock
57 people were killed instantly
Eruption removed 1,300 feet (396 meters) of the summit
Left a horseshoe-shaped crater and a barren wasteland
Mount St Helens remains active and has erupted periodically since 1980

In terms of economic impact, the Mount St. Helens eruption was the most destructive in US history
200+ homes destroyed
185+ miles of roads and 15 miles of railways were damaged
Ash clogged sewage systems, damaged cars and buildings and temporarily shut down air traffic over the Northwest

Has attracted millions of tourists to southwest Washington
Governments spent millions of dollars developing the region for tourism
Seasonal influx of visitors has huge impact on the local rural timber communities
Scrambling to satisfy demands of tourists
Tourism blamed for increased congestion on local highways and overcrowding in stores, restaurants and community parks
Future tourism developments appears to be inevitable
As the most active volcano in indonesia
10,000 people evacuated 2.5 km away from the crater.
Indonesia is on the

"Ring of Fire,"
an arc of fault lines circling the Pacific Basin that is prone to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
25 people were dead and more than a dozen others were being treated for injuries including severe burns. among the dead is a two month old baby.
Swift and organize action taken by the indonesian government has helped death tolls to a maximum of only 50 people.
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