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AP Human Geography: Population (Ch. 2)
Transcript of AP Human Geography: Population (Ch. 2)
Where is the World's Population Distributed?
Where Has the World's Population Increased?
Why is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries?
Why Might the World Face an Overpopulation Problem?
"The Study of Population"
You + your Siblings =
Father + Siblings =
Mother + Siblings =
Grandparent + Siblings =
Today 7 Billion +
Growth Concentrated in LDC's
Availability of Resources?
Sparsely Populated Regions
2/3 of Pop in 4 Regions
China = Most Populous
clustered near coast - Huang (Yellow) and Yangtze river valleys
50%-50% urban vs. rural farmers
Japan and S. Korea
45% live in 3 Metros (Tokyo, Osaka, and Seoul)
75% urban workers
Indus and Ganges Rivers
75% rural farmers
Indochina, Java, Sumatra, Philippines.
River Valley + Islands
Asia = 50% of World Population
On 10% of Earth Land
Focused on Coal Fields of England, Germany, and Belgium
Import food and resources
Russia = Largest Land
USA = 2 % Farm
Dry, Wet, Cold, High
Ecumene = portions populated by humans
"Number of people \ total land area"
"Number of people \ unit of arable land"
"Farmers per acre of arable land"
Demographic Transition Model
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) = # of births per 1000 people annually
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) = infant (under 1 year old) deaths per 1000 live births annually
Life Expectancy - Measurement (at birth) of the average life span at current mortality levels.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) = average number of children per woman
Crude Death Rate (CDR) = # of deaths per 1000 people in a year
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) = % population growth annually (excludes migration)
Doubling Time --> 1.2 % NIR = 54 years
95% of NIR is in LDC's
Children Economic Liability
Dependency Ration = # of people too old or too young to work
Sex Ratio = males per 100 females
typically more males than females born (but higher death rates)
MDC's slightly less men
LDC's slightly more men
Today the gap between population growth and avaliable resources is even worse...ever more MDC's consuming ever more resources!
Overly Pessimistic Prediction
Resources are not fixed
Man can be more efficient at producing Resources
Resources can be recycled
Pop Growth can stimulate economic growth and boost resource production
More Population = More Ideas = More Technology
World has enough resources, they are just not shared equally or distributed effectively
Theory vs. Reality
Malthus wrong so far
World food production has grown faster than population growth
2nd Agricultural Rev
more land brought into productivity
Malthus too pessimistic about pace of population growth.
Population growth has slowed, at least in some places...example for the future?
Thomas Malthus on Overpopulation
"An Essay on the Principles of Population" (1798)
Population grows faster (geometric) than increases in food supply (arithmetic)
25 Years 2:2
50 Years 4:3
75 Years 8:4
100 Years: 16:5
Inevitably Disease, Famine, or War would knock population back into check!
Not just food being outstripped by population! Today air, land, minerals, and fuels are stretched thin!
Declining Birth Rates
Economic Dev --> Women's Employment --> Women's Education --> Equal Rights and Control over their own life --> delayed marriage, delayed childbirth, smaller family size
Economic Development --> lower infant mortality rate --> smaller families --> "graying" population.
LDCs demand outstrips availability
Economics, Religion, Customs, and Education has dramatically caused contraceptive use to vary widely from country to country.
5 ? = Re-emergence of infections and parasitic diseases
accidents, animal attacks, war/murder
"Natural Checks" Malthus
Industrial Rev &
"Human Created Diseases"
Chronic "Aging" Disorders
Continued medical advancements
Disease Evolution, Mutation, and Resistance
Poverty and Economic Limits on Medical Treatment and Medicine, and Global Rapid Travel
Nat Geo 7 Billion Series:
"Population 7 Billion"
"Brazil's Girl Power"
"A Five-Step Plan to Feed the World"