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Mild/Moderate & Severe Disabilities

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Ashley Miller

on 10 September 2014

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Transcript of Mild/Moderate & Severe Disabilities

Mild/Moderate & Severe Disabilities
From Mainstream to INCLUSION
Other IDEA services:
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Groups
Gifted and Talented
OHI: Other Health Impairment
Hypersensitivity of environmental factors, triggers etc.
Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli
May heave health restrictions
Dramatic response to typical situations
TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury
Can occur at any time in a person's life
Adolescents is one of the most significant times for brain injuries to occur
Two types: closed and open head injury
A concussion is a mild form of TBI
Pg. 17
Speech & Language
Speech & Language-
a disorder or articulation, fluency, voice or language that adversely affects educational performance
MR- Mental Retardation
Intellectual Disability (2010 changed from MR-Mental Retardation to ID-Intellectual Disability):
ED: Emotional Disturbance
Emotional Disturbance:
The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:
(A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors
(B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
(C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
(D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
(E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
Characteristic Traits:
Struggle to communicate with others
Taking care of personal needs (dressing, bathing, going to the bathroom)-health and safety
Home living (helping to set the table, cleaning the house, or cooking dinner)
Social skills (manners, knowing the rules of conversation, getting along in a group, playing a game)
Academic struggles with reading, writing, and basic math; and listening
Develops and learns at a slower rate
Characteristic Traits:
Engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements
Resistant to environmental change or change in routines
Unusual responses to sensory experiences
Difficulty showing or controlling emotions
Lack of awareness or recognition of themselves and/or others
Delayed response time
Communication difficulties
Characteristic Traits:
Physical and mental changes
Physical: Seizures, poor coordination, weakness, fatigue, headaches, spasticity or paralysis, problems with vision, hearing, and perception
Mental: attention, memory, reasoning, judgment etc.
Other Health Impairment:
Defined as: Having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that—
(i) Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia, Tourette syndrome; and
(ii) Adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

Characteristic Traits:

Intellectual functioning is not as strong an indicator as other referral characteristics

Failure in skill acquisition
Severe learning deficiencies given chronological age expectancy
Poor attendance to class instruction
Short attention span
Little motivation for academic learning

Mood swings
Laughs, cries or becomes very angry without apparent cause at times when others would show different reaction
Looks depressed almost all the time without regard to circumstances
Daydreams; sits with a vacant expression doing nothing productive
Hearing Impairment
Visual Impairments
Covers individuals who are legally blind
Mild, moderate or severe
Includes partial sight
Unable to print
Typically learn via braille
Deaf - Blindness
moderate to severe impairments in both
, causing severe communication and educational needs
exaggerated features
exterior or interior implants
assisstive technology, specialized instruction and support services
Sensitivity to vibrations
Learn to use American sign language
Tend to isolate themselves or feel isolated from others
Non-verbal cues are replaced with sensory cues such as flicking of the lights, body gestures or physical touch
Communication Disorder
Orthopedic Impairments
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Developmental disability that share many of the same characteristics
Usually evident by age three
Autism and PDD-NOS are neurological disorders that affect a child’s ability to communicate, understand language, play, and relate to others.
ASD affects one out of every 68 children in the U.S.
ASD occurs more often among boys than girls.
Multiple Disabilities
Multiple disabilities:
Considered an individual that has more than one significant disability, such as movement difficulties, sensory loss, and/or a behavior or emotional disorder
Multiple disabilities that are interrelated to the extent that it is difficult to identify the primary area of disability
Excludes :"Blind & Deafness"
People with severe or multiple disabilities may exhibit a wide range of characteristics, depending on the combination and severity of disabilities, and the person’s age.
There are, however, some traits they may share, including:
Limited speech or communication
Difficulty in basic physical mobility
Tendency to forget skills through disuse
Trouble generalizing skills from one situation to another
A need for support in major life activities (e.g., domestic, leisure, community use, vocational).
Intellectual Disability
1. Intellectual functioning level (IQ) is below 70-75
2. Significant limitations exist in two or more adaptive skill areas; and
3. The condition manifests itself before the age of 18
…means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Autism Spectrum Disorder Covers:
Autistic Disorder
Asperger's Syndrome
PDD-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (not otherwise specified)
Rett's Disorder
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Traumatic Brain Injury:
IDEA defines it as: "an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in a total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance..."
IDEA defines it as: A concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
IDEA defines it as: An impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
Hearing impairment
is defined by IDEA as "an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance."
is defined by IDEA as "a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification."
Specific Learning Disability
Speech and Language Impairment
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation
Emotional Disturbance
Multiple Disabilities
Hearing Impairments (including deaf)
Orthopedic Impairments
Other Health Impairment
Visual Impairments (including blind)
Deaf - Blindness
Traumatic Brain Injury
Communication Disorder
14. Developmental Delay
slurred speech
improper use of words and their meanings
inability to express ideas
inappropriate grammatical patterns
reduced vocabulary
inability to follow directions
low self-esteem
fearful of public speaking
Defined as: A bodily impairment that is severe enough to negatively affect a child’s educational performance.
This disability category includes all orthopedic impairments, regardless of cause.
Examples of potential causes of orthopedic impairment include genetic abnormality, disease, injury, birth trauma, amputation, burns, or other causes
Includes: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifada, Degenerative diseases & Musculoskeletal disorders
Defined as: An impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbol systems.
includes a speech disorder, language disorder, central auditory processing disorder and hearing disorder
Resource Room Model
RR-resource room model was a response to meeting LRE while providing additional supports to students with disabilities
pg. 28
not all schools use the RR method/room/services
the model and setup varies among districts
students are considered as part of the total school population because they are in general education settings part of the day
typically staffed by at least one special education teachers
sometimes content area teachers support with RR
instruction can be provided by teachers who specialize in particular content
can be used a work area for students to take tests, quizzes and get one-on-one support in completing course work
A complex range of disabilities, from conduct disorder to schizophrenia
The educational programs for children with an emotional disturbance need to include attention to providing emotional and behavioral support as well as helping them to master academics, develop social skills, and increase self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem.
Severe Disabilities:
1. Autism
2. Deaf-Blindness
2. Intellectual Disability
4. Multiple Disabilities
5. Traumatic Brain Injury

IDEA Recognized Disabilities:
In 14 years, the number of students with severe and multiple disabilities educated primarily in the general education classes has more than doubled
The majority of students with severe and multiple disabilities in the general education classes has more than doubled
Comprehensive literature review for the previous 20 years indicate that no references to research that found segregated education to be more effective than inclusive education

Students with severe disabilities tend to learn better when they are actively involved in the learning process and provided with tactile cues, pictures, objects, parts of objects, and clear models of behavior
They need to be allowed time to examine objects of interest
They need to be given many opportunities to perform meaningful tasks
Routines and repetition help to support understanding
What we know about students with severe disabilities
Multiple Disabilities
Downing, J. (2008). Including students with severe and multiple disabilities in typical classrooms. Paul. H. Brooks Publishing. Baltimore, MD.

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2013). Other health impairment. Retrieved from http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/ohi

Wisconsin Education Association Council. (2007). Special education inclusion. Retrieved from http://www.weac.org/Issues_Advocacy/Resource_Pages_On_Issues_one/Special_Education/special_education_inclusion.aspx

The approach in which students with disabilities must ‘earn’ their way into the regular education classrooms and demonstrate the ability to ‘keep up’ with non disabled peers (old model)
People who support mainstreaming feel that students with special needs should FIRST be in a special education classroom and eventually transitioned to the regular education environment

A commitment to educate each child in the school and classroom to the maximum extent possible
It involves bringing the support services to the child within the regular education classroom (newer form of education)
Some pull-out services remain with this model including specific classes and services only for individuals with disabilities
Mentality that students with special needs FIRST should be placed in the regular education classroom then add additional support

Full Inclusion:
All students, regardless of handicap or disability and severity, will be in the regular education classroom program full time
All services must be provided in the classroom

The teaching approach
Most teachers teach using visual and auditory sensory modes
When visual and auditory information is unclear or not readily accessible the impact on learning can be dramatic
Students who do not have clear access to this information or who do not understand this type of information will not experience the same rich learning environment as other children
Visual and Auditory Learning
They have trouble making and maintaining friendships
They have little idea of how friendships are made
They struggle to understand what social skills are needed and/or how to act in public
Social Interactions
Multiple Disabilities can be a combination of any of the disabilities:
Orthopedic Impairments
Visual Impairments
Communication Disorders
Hearing Impairment
Emotional Disturbance
Other Health Impairment
Multiple Disabilities
Multiple Disabilities Aren’t All the Same...

It can range from many spectrums including:
how many disabilities a child has
which disabilities are involved
how severe each disability is

Potential Causes of Multiple Disabilities:
Chromosomal abnormalities
Premature birth
Difficulties after birth
Poor development of the brain or spinal cord
Genetic disorders
Injuries from accidents (1)

Heart conditions
Hemophilia (blood doesn't clot properly)
Lead poisoning
Nephritis (inflammation of the kidney/s)
Rheumatic fever (complication of untreated or poorly treated strep throat or scarlet fever)
Sickle cell anemia
Tourette syndrome

Disabilities that fall under OHI:
1. Specific Learning Disability
2. Speech and Language Impairment
3. Emotional Disturbance
4. Hearing Impairments (including deaf)
5. Orthopedic Impairments
6. Other Health Impairment
7. Visual Impairments (including blind)
8. MILD form of Traumatic Brain Injury
9. Communication Disorder

Mild/Moderate Disabilities
Severe Disabilities
Mild/Moderate Disabilities
Specific Learning Disability
IDEA defines it as: "A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological process involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations."

-Most common category of disabilities in middle and secondary levels
-Students do not perform academically as well as expected

Characteristic Traits:
Attention Deficits
Academic Deficits
Sensorimotor Deficits
Social skills deficits
Self-determination deficits
Students with severe disabilities tend to learn better when they are actively involved in the learning process and provided with tactile cues, pictures, objects, parts of objects, and clear models of behavior
They need to be allowed time to examine objects of interest
They need to be given many opportunities to perform meaningful tasks
Routines and repetition help to support understanding
What they NEED
IDEA and it's corresponding Code of Federal Regulations (2006) do define 13 distinct disability categories including.....
ASDs affect one out of every 68 children in the U.S. They occur more often among boys than girls.
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