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Transcript of Psychology
the left traces of which was the source of DNA. Eyewitness Recall KIRK BLOODSWORTH Bloodworth's Case The case of was the first American who was freed from prison and proved innocent through DNA fingerprinting.
for sexual assault, rape and first-degree premeditated murder of a nine-year-old girl.
Bloodsworth assured he was - he did not comply to the charges pressed against him.
placed him with the victim at the time of the crime.
a police sketch based on those recollections identified Bloodsworth as the criminal. The Outcome In 1992, the prosecution agreed for DNA testing to be performed.
It was not a match - the DNA results excluded Bloodsworth as the murderer, proving his innocence
the DNA of the semen present on the victim’s clothing was different from Bloodsworth's.
In 1993 Bloodsworth was from prison. The Case of Crime: abduction and rape of an underage male.
Suspect: the description of the predator made by the victim closely related to the appearance of James Bain.
despite having a solid alibi during the night of the crime, Bain was arrested. Victim's (Mis)identification Prosecution's case relied largely on the victim's identification of Bain in the photo lineup.
victim gave a physical description of the assailant
the victim's relative related the description to James Bain
in turn, the victim adopted Bain as his assailant
when presented with a photo lineup, the police suggested improperly for the victim to pick out Bain- and he did. Post-Conviction Law passed in 2001 allowed cases to be reopened for DNA testing.
Bain's DNA was sent for testing to be compared with DNA found on victim's clothing.
The testing excluded Bain as the source of the DNA.
In 2009, the judge signed an order releasing Bain from prison. Kirk Bloodsworth Convicted in 1985 innocent Five eyewitnesses re-examine DNA tests semen culprit Basic definitions... eye·wit·ness /īwitns/
Noun: A person who has personally seen something happen and so can give a first-hand description of the event. re·call /rikôl/
Verb: Bring (a fact, event, or situation) back into one's mind, esp. so as to recount it to others; remember. PCR DNA Tests from Bloodsworth's Case, 1993 JAMES BAIN "Kirk, from the moment he was arrested to the time he was released, said he did not do it, he didn't know who did. Nobody believed him. Friday afternoon we got the results of the DNA tests. Monday morning he was out of prison -- and everybody believed him,"
said Morin, an associate judge. released The Process Significance of Eyewitness Recall in Criminal Justice Eyewitness recall is frequently a deciding factor in criminal cases.
If accurate, an eyewitness can simply lead the authorities to the criminal.
Courts rely mainly on eyewitness facial recognition, for example in the photo lineup. Studies showed witness characteristics have a significant effect on eyewitness recall and identification (Wright & Stroud, 2002)
Research has been conducted to distinguish how the effects of drugs and alcohol can affect eyewitness recall.
Yuille et al. (1998) - marijuana has a temporary negative effect on the amount of information remembered by a witnesses; has little influence on recall accuracy or recognition.
Yuille and Tollestrup (1990) found that witnesses do not show improvement in eyewitness accuracy between their intoxicated recollection immediately after the event and their sober attempt= showing alcohol has permanent consequences for memory. Eyewitness Accuracy The accuracy of eyewitness memories is often questioned.
many factors can influence the process of encoding and retrieval of the witnessed event, which affects the creation of memory for that event.
Research has provided evidence that suggests eyewitness memory is volatile.
can be influenced by leading questions, making it unreliable- illustrated by the study by Loftus and Palmer (1974). Mistaken eyewitness identification plays a major role in the wrongful conviction of innocent individuals.
"Eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide, playing a role in nearly 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing." [http://www.innocenceproject.org] http://articles.cnn.com In Bloodsworth's case, the authorities chose leading questions to make the eyewitnesses relate the criminal to Bloodsworth.
they asked 'was the criminal wearing a green shirt?' rather than 'what color shirt did the criminal wear?' May be a result of mismatching between how faces are processed and how features in faces are retrieved during an event.
The other-race effect (i.e. the own-race bias, cross-race effect, other-ethnicity effect, same-race advantage) is considered to impact the accuracy of facial recognition.
person recognizes his own race better and encodes features more deeply= more detailed memory. Cognitive Factors Affecting Reliability Schema and Memory Through the use of schema, daily behavior in certain situations does not require much thought.
Schema 'controls' the uptake of new information, especially when a person faces an unfamiliar situation.
Certain features will be better recognized by the person, so he/she will remember them better.
therefore, it can be deduced that schema may partially control what information the person intakes.
defines what has been witnessed and what will be remembered.