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Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
Transcript of Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
Cited as founder of scientific psychology
first psychology lab
studied the immediate conscious experiences of sensation William James
wrote a famous psychology book
interested in the function or purpose of behavioral acts
Definition of psychology:
the scientific study of behavior
and mental processes
Welcome to AP Psychology! Hippocrates Plato Aristotle Descartes Locke Nature vs. Nurture
Is our behavior inborn or learned? Schools of Psychology
focuses is on the structure of the mind and identification of the basic elements of consciousness (sensations, feelings, and images)
Structuralism Functionalism focuses on application of psychological findings to practical situations and the function of mental operations in adapting to the environment Mary Whiton Calkins
Studied under William James
First Woman president of the American Psychological Association Approaches to Psychology Behavioral Approach
psychology should be an objective science that
studies behavior without reference to mental processes
believe behavior results from learning Ivan Pavlov
trained dogs to salivate in response to the sound of a tone John B. Watson
believed psychology should be the science of behavior (its effect on the environment) B. F. Skinner
worked with rats and pigeons
found that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive consequences and not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative consequences
Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Approach focuses on unconscious internal conflicts to explain mental disorders, personality and motivation Sigmund Freud
treated patients with mental disorders
talked with them over time to reveal unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses in order to enhance patient's self-knowledge Humanistic Approach
focuses on importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential
importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance
believe that people have the ability to solve their own problems
famous for creating 'Maslow's hierarchy of needs'
Carl Rogers Biological Approach examines how complex chemical and biologicalprocesses within the nervous and endocrine systems are related to the behavior of organisms.
think that the mind is what the brain does Evolutionary Approach explain behavior patterns as adaptations naturally selected for, because they increase reproductive success Charles Darwin Cognitive Approach emphasize the importance of receiving, storing, and processing information; of thinking and reasoning, and of language to understanding human behavior Jean Piaget
studied cognitive development in children
layed foundation for preschool and primary educational approaches Sociocultural Approach examines cultural differences in an attempt to understand, predict, and control behavior Types of Research:
Basic research- builds psychology's knowledge base
Applied research- tries to solve practical problems Isn't this all just common sense? Duh! Have you heard the phrase: Hindsight is 20/20?
Hindsight bias: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it
"I knew it all along!"