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The Cell Cycle - Mitosis & Meiosis

AS/A Level Biology (OCR). From AS Unit F211.

Emma Harris

on 20 November 2011

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Transcript of The Cell Cycle - Mitosis & Meiosis

The Cell Cycle The cell cycle is the process of cell growth and division Behold!
The Cell Cycle Circle! M M I S G1 G2 M = Mitosis G1 = Biosynthesis (e.g. proteins made, organelles replicate) S = Synthesis of new DNA (replication of chromosomes) G2 = Growth New daughter cells form from parent cells in a series of events called the... The daughter cells produced
must be able to carry out the same functions as the parent cell. Daughter cells are genetically identical both to each other and to the parent cell. Why make new cells? Asexual reproduction Replacement Growth Repair Chromosomes are in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. E Harris Each chromosome contains one molecule of DNA, which includes specific lengths of DNA called genes. The daughter cells produced during the cell cycle must contain a copy of all of these instructions... ...so they can contain a full set of chromosomes, copied exactly from the chromosomes in the parent cell. In eukaryotes, the molecules of DNA that make up each chromosome are wrapped around proteins called histones, together they are called chromatins. Before the cell divides the DNA of each chromosome must be replicated. I = Interphase Stage One: Interphase *This stages takes up most of the cell cycle. Two replicas are produced, each an exact copy of the original. The remain together at a point called the centromere. These replicas are called a pair of sister chromatids. When separated, each one will end up in a different, new daughter cell. Also, in interphase, the DNA that is copied is checked for any errors that may have occured during copying. If any errors in the DNA are detected at this stage, the cell may kill itself to prevent any errors/mutations being passed on. Stage 2: Mitosis - Prophase
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