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Violence in Sport

OCR AS Physical Education: Socio-Cultural Studies
by

C S Farman

on 13 March 2012

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Transcript of Violence in Sport

Candidates should be able to:
Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of violence in sport (players and spectators).
Describe possible causes and solutions.
Violence in Sport
Violence by spectators and players is a contemporary sporting issue.

Discuss violence in sport with reference to both causes and solutions. (10)
Exam Question
Aggression is not a new phenomenon.
Mob-football games of pre-industrial days were once characterised by severe violence and brutality.
Pre-1850
Helped by the civilised ethics that emerged from English public schools, games became linked with fair play and sportsmanship.
Games were not taken too seriously in these schools.
Taking part was more important than winning.
Post-1850
Middle class attitudes have been squeezed out of modern sport.
Stakes are high, outcome imperative and pressure intense.
Gamesmanship is commonplace.
Today
Key Terms
Sportsmanship
: fair play
Gamesmanship
: stretching the rules to gain an unfair advantage
Deviance
: seriously breaking the rules and norms (of sport)
Can be categorised and explained in terms of:
Cheating:
it is a blatant infringement of agreed sporting codes and a disregard of the true values of sport as an experience.
Health:
it causes injury and physical damage, which can be life-threatening.
Leagality:
physical violence is against the law of the land and is increasingly being punished with legal action when it occurs in sport.
Role-modelling:
elite sports performers have a responsiblity to be role models, especially to young people.
Violence by Players
Aggressive and rebellious behaviour at sporting events is not new.
The problem was around in pre-industrial days and throughout the Victorian period, when the costant fighting of the Irish immigrant Hooligan family added a new word to the language of the 1890s.
Hooliganism forcefully raised its head as a major social problem again in the 1960s in connection with the collective, aggressive behaviour of predominantly white, urban, unskilled teenage males at football matches.
Violence by spectators
Nothing to do with hooliganism.
1989 - Hillsborough in Sheffield.
Liverpool playing Nottingham Forest in FA Cup Semi Final.
Hundreds of Liverpool fans were channelled into an already crowded section of the ground.
Created crush - 95 deaths.
Overcrowding and poor facilities.
Hillsborough
Heysel Stadium - 1985 - 39 deaths.
European Cup Final.
31 Juventus fans died when there was a charge by Liverpool fans.
More 250 others were injured when violence erupted between fans.
Britain was banned from European football for 5 years.
Heysel
Specification
Causes of violence by players
Page 307
Solutions to the problem - Page 308
Causes of violence by spectators
Page 308
Solutions to the problem - Page 309
Full transcript