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HHD U1 AOS 2 (PART 1)

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Casey Hawley

on 2 December 2016

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Transcript of HHD U1 AOS 2 (PART 1)

DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
"Any factor that can increase the chances of ill health (risk factor) or good health (protective factor) in a population or individual."
NUTRITION FOOD SELECTION MODELS
MICRONUTRIENTS

NUTRITION

CONSEQUENCES OF NUTRITIONAL IMBALANCES ON YOUTH HEALTH
SHORT TERM CONSEQUENCES

Weight gain/Energy Levels decrease/Dehydration
UNIT 1 AOS 2
(YOUTH ISSUES)

OUTCOME 2 (PART 1)
Describe and explain the factors that have an impact on the health and development of Australia's youth.

"Focuses on the actions or patterns of living of an individual or group that affects health".
BEHAVIOURAL DETERMINANTS
LEARNING ACTIVITY
In groups of 2 you are to investigate one behavioural determinant of health impacting youth

1. Investigate the possible effects on all aspects of HEALTH and INDIVIDUAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT by using the table below.

2. Each pair will create a VOKI to present their findings to the class.
"The physical things that make up the environment which can directly impact on one's health".
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
WORK ENVIRONMENT
Working OUTDOORS can leave them exposed to UV exposure or COOL ENVIRONMENTS which may affect one's PHYSICAL HEALTH
HOSTILE or UNPLEASANT conditions may affect ones MENTAL HEALTH by affecting self esteem etc
ACCESS TO RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES
ACTIVITIES provide youth with opportunities for SOCIAL INTERACTION and PHYSICAL ACTIVITY and hence improve one's PHYSICAL, SOCIAL and MENTAL HEALTH
Promotes development because MOTOR SKILLS, SOCIAL SKILLS, SELF CONCEPT and KNOWLEDGE can be increased
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
"Refers to the social situation in which people work and live in."
FAMILY COHESION
Family that REGULARLY COMMUNICATES could assist with development of SOCIAL SKILLS and YOUTH EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT can occur from GAINING INFORMATION from parents and siblings
PARENTAL HEALTH
ILL or DISABLED PARENTS may affect the HEALTH and DEVELOPMENT of youth NEGATIVELY and/or POSITIVELY
SES (Education/Employment/Income)
UNEMPLOYMENT may have long term affects on HEALTH and DEVELOPMENT of youth
MEDIA
Can have a POSITIVE and NEGATIVE impact on youth's HEALTH and DEVELOPMENT
Can be a valuable EDUCATION TOOL, hence promoting INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
Can allow ACCESS TO INFORMATION that is not age appropriate for use which may AFFECT their SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Spending too long on computers can CAUSE WEIGHT GAIN and AFFECT one's PHYSICAL HEALTH and affect one's SOCIAL HEALTH due to lack of face to face communication
SOCIAL SUPPORT
SUPPORT may encourage individuals to EXERCISE or NOT SMOKE and hence promote PHYSICAL HEALTH
SUPPORT creates KNOWLEDGE where people learn things that may benefit for HEALTH and DEVELOPMENT
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
PARTICIPATING in the community promotes SOCIAL and MENTAL HEALTH.
Promotes individual SELF WORTH and SELF CONCEPT which promotes EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
COMMUNITY VIOLENCE
Can cause physical injuries
People may choose violence to deal with problems which affects social development
Living in fear can negatively influence mental health
Needed for optimal health and development
MACRONUTRIENTS
CARBOHYDRATES
PROTEIN
FATS
WATER
MICRONUTRIENTS
VITAMINS
MINERALS
MACRONUTRIENTS
"Nutrients needed by the body in relatively large amounts."
CARBOHYDRATES
MAIN HEALTH FUNCTIONS
Provide
energy
once broken down into glucose
Gives sweetness to food, improving
taste
FOOD SOURCES
Potatoes, Rice, Pasta, Breakfast cereals, Bread
GLYCAEMIC INDEX
"Index that ranks food containing carbohydrates by how quickly they raise blood glucose levels once eaten."

"Classifies food as Low (0-55), Medium (56-59) or High (70-100)."
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS
Provides
energy for growth
of new tissue (growth spurt)
Growth increases metabolic rate and hence requires more energy
FIBRE
Form of carbohydrate but has different functions
MAJOR HEALTH FUNCTION
Assists with
digestion
and
removal of wastes
Makes you feel full, assisting with
weight management
Lowers blood
cholesterol levels
Assists with
controlling blood glucose
levels
Reduce
the risk of
some cancers
MAJOR FOOD SOURCES
Wholegrain breads and cereals, fruit and vegetables particularly when the skin is left on.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS
Insoluble fibre
reduces risk
of
constipation
Soluble fibre
reduces

blood cholesterol
which reduces risk of future health issues
Soluble fibre assists with extending
concentration levels
GI FOOD SOURCES
PROTEIN
"Macronutrient made from amino acids that is necessary for the growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue."
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNCTION
Build, maintain, repair body cells
and hence assist with building muscle, organs, bone and blood cells
Secondary
energy source
to carbohydrates
Form an important part of
hormones, antibodies and enzymes
FOOD SOURCES
Meat, Egg, Cheese, Fish, Chicken, Lentils, Corn, Nuts
MAJOR HEALTH FUNCTIONS
Transports substances
throughout the body. Protein forms LDL and HDL which are carriers of cholesterol.
Protein is a component of haemoglobin (the oxygen carrying component of blood) and is also responsible for
oxygen and iron transport
around the body.
From structure to food sources
THE GOOD (Unsaturated), THE BAD (Saturated) AND THE UGLY (Trans)
FATS (Lipids)
MONOUNSATURATED (GOOD FATS)
Olive oil, Avocado, Canola oil, Nuts, Peanut Butter
POLYUNSATURATED (GOOD FATS)
Omega 3
(fish - sardines/tuna/salmon) Canola and Soy oils
Omega 6
(nuts, seeds, corn and safflower oil)
MAJOR HEALTH FUNCTIONS
Polyunsaturated fats can
prevent
some
cancers
and
CVD
Fuel for
energy
Cushioning and
protection
of
organs
Provide
insulation
to maintain core body temperature
Monounsaturated fats assist with
lowering LDL
cholesterol (bad cholesterol)
Polyunsaturated fats assist with
increasing HDL cholesterol
(good cholesterol)
Saturated and Trans fat can increase LDL Cholesterol and increase risk of CVD
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNCTION
Development
and
maintenance
of
cells
Cholesterol needed for
production
of
sex hormones
Fats provide a
source of energy
for youth
SATURATED FATS (BAD FATS)
Meat, full cream milk/cheese, most fried take away foods, most biscuits and pastries
TRANS FATS (UGLY FATS)
Process foods such as pies, pastries, cakes, margarines
FROM STRUCTURE TO FOOD SOURCES
WATER
It is possible for an adult to survive longer without food than without water because there is no storage site for water in the body.
WATER MAJOR HEALTH FUNCTIONS
All
chemical reactions
require the presence of water
Transports water
to the cells,
filters out wastes
and
lubricates food
as it moves through the gastrointestinal tract
Controls
body temperature.
Key component of
blood
Required for
muscular contractions
Reduces risk of kidney stones, constipation and weight gain
WATER FOOD
SOURCES
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS
Assists with
new tissues
Assists with all
growth and maintenance
of body functions
Hydration assists with c
oncentration levels
and short term memory
SUN PROTECTION
LACK of SUN PROTECTION can INCREASE risk of SKIN CANCER and decrease one's PHYSICAL HEALTH.

INSUFFICIENT UV exposure leads to LACK of VITAMIN D which assists in absorption of calcium and as a result REDUCES BONE DENSITY and increased risk of OSTEOPOROSIS.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

PREVENTS CVD due to MAINTAINING optimal BODY WEIGHT
PREVENTS some CANCERS as exercise ENHANCES IMMUNE FUNCTION
PROMOTES SOCIAL INTERACTION due to exposure to various social groups
REDUCES STRESS and ANXIETY
Strengthening bones and INCREASING BONE DENSITY
LEARN new GAMES and STRATEGIES with various sports, hence promoting INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
Team sports can develop CO-OPERATIVE SKILLS and team work which promotes SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
SUBSTANCE USE (Illicit Drugs/Tobacco/Alcohol)
SHARING NEEDLES can result in HEPATITIS C and HIV
Can lead to VIOLENCE and physical INJURIES
May reduce appetitie and hence WEAKEN IMMUNE SYSTEM
Can INCREASE HR and BP which can lead to CVD
INCREASES RISK of certain CANCERS
INCREASES RISK of developing MENTAL ILLNESSES
May find it hard to hold down a job or participate in full time study and hence AFFECT SOCIAL and INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
SEXUAL PRACTICES
Can affect MENTAL HEALTH and EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Can lead to STI's or unplanned PREGNANCY which can affect one's health and development
SEEKING HELP FROM HEALTH PROFESSIONALS
Can give ADVICE about NUTRITION which PROMOTES PHYSICAL HEALTH and DEVELOPMENT
Can PROVIDE IMMUNISATION against conditions which PROMOTES PHYSICAL HEALTH
Can provide ADVICE on STRESS and ANXIETY management which promotes MENTAL HEALTH
TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE HOME
Can prevent LUNG FUNCTIONING and hence affect PHYSICAL ACTIVITY and MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
Increased risk of ASTHMA/BREATHING ISSUES and hence increase risk of heart disease and lung cancer
HOUSING ENVIRONMENT
Dust/tobacco can cause ASTHMA and RESPIRATORY CONDITIONS
Quality of drinking WATER can lead to INFECTIONS and DEHYDRATION
CRAMPED living conditions can lead to STRESS and MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES
UNSAFE living environments can lead to increased risk of INJURIES.
Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts
MICRONUTRIENTS
VITAMINS
MINERALS
VITAMINS
MAJOR FUNCTION
Needed to maintain normal vision, growth of soft tissues (E.g. skin) and bone formation
Assist with cell division (important for youth)
Assists in promoting a healthy immune system
Develops antibodies to assist with fighting infections
Deficiency can lead to increased rates of infections, poor eye health and blindness
MAJOR FOOD SOURCES
Butter, Cheese, eggs, leafy green vegetables, yellow fruits and vegetables and carrots
VITAMIN A
VITAMIN D
MAJOR FUNCTION
Required for the absorption of calcium and phosphorous from the intestine into the blood stream
Lack of vitamin D can lead to weakened bones and teeth (rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults)
MAJOR FOOD SORUCES
Fish including tuna, salmon, sardines, cheese and egg yolks
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
VITAMIN C
MAJOR FUNCTION
Assists in collagen development, which assists with formation of bones, skin, scar tissue and connective tissue
Assists in fighting infection and disease
Antioxidant properties can reduce the damage done by free radicals (chemicals)
Assist with iron absorption
Deficiency could lead to anaemia
MAJOR FOOD SOURCES
Kiwi fruit, broccoli, blackcurrants, oranges and citrus fruits
B GROUP
B1/2/3
(Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin)
MAJOR FUNCTIONS
Essential for the process of metabolising or converting fuels into energy
Lack of these vitamins could slow or stunt growth
B6
(Pyroxene)
MAJOR FUNCTION
Required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein
Assists with brain development
Assists with Red blood cell development
Lack of B6 can lead to depression, insomnia, anaemia, confusion etc
VITAMIN B9 (FOLATE)
VITAMIN B12
MAJOR FUNCTIONS
Needed for RBC formation along with folate
Important for the function of the immune, brain and nervous system.
A deficiency has been associated with dementia, memory loss and depression as well as tiredness, heart palpitations
Assists in the synthesis of DNA
MAJOR FUNCTIONS
Works with B12
Needed for normal cell division and cell metabolism
Optimal DNA synthesis and reduces the risk of pregnant women giving birth to low weight babies and babies with neural tube defects such as spina bifida
Required for development of RBC and lack of folate can lead to anaemia.
VITAMINS FROM STRUCTURE TO FOOD SOURCE
MINERALS
CALCIUM
MAJOR FUNCTIONS
Hardening agent for teeth, bones, cartilage
Aids in muscle contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes and functioning of the nervous system
Needed to reach peak bone mass. If not achieved you are at risk of developing osteoporosis and suffering fractures
IRON
MAJOR FUNCTIONS
Essential part of haemoglobin, which aids in the transportation of oxygen around the body
Lack of iron means cells don’t get enough oxygen and their functioning is impaired
Deficiency could lead to anaemia
INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF NUTRIENTS
LONG TERM CONSEQUENCES
Adult Obesity/CVD/Diabetes/Colorectal Cancer/Osteoporosis
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH...

SATURATED/TRANS FATS:
Excess saturated/trans fat, leads to an increased risk of CVD

High trans fat can have adverse affects on ones cardiovascular health

CARBOHYDRATES/PROTEIN:
High intake of carbohydrates/protein are linked to increased weight gain and associated conditions such as CVD.

UNSATURATED FATS (Monunsaturated/Polyunsaturated)
Unsaturated fats can decrease blood cholesterol levels and improve Cardiovascular health.
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN OBESITY...

ENERGY DENSE FOODS
Eating more food than the body uses in metabolism and physical activity results in excess body fat, and therefore lead to being overweight or obese.

Energy dense foods (soft drink/high fat snacks/alcohol) can contribute to obesity and increase risk of CVD

CARBOHYDRATES/PROTEIN/FATS
Excess consumption can lead to obesity if not used for energy

INSOLUBLE FIBRE
These foods are usually lower in fat and hence lower in kj. Which could contribute to a healthy weight and reduce risk of obesity

WATER
No kj, so can reduce risk of obesity and associated conditions (CVD)
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN DIABETES MELLITUS...

SATURATED AND TRANS FATS:
High intake increase excess weight gain and therefore increases chance of diabetes.

Trans fat can contribute to high BG levels, resulting in impaired glucose regulation and hence diabetes mellitus.

CARBOHYDRATES/FATS/PROTEIN
Excess consumption can lead to weight gain and obesity, increasing risk of diabetes mellitus.

WATER AND SUGAR FREE DRINKS:
Water prevents sudden large increase in glucose levels, reducing risk of diabetes.

EATING MEALS AT REGULAR INTERVALS:
Spacing carbohydrate consumption, ensures blood glucose levels remain within normal levels, protecting against diabetes mellitus.

FIBRE:
Reduces blood glucose levels, which can protect against diabetes mellitus
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN COLORECTAL CANCER...

CARBOHYDRATES/PROTEIN/FATS
Excess consumption can lead to weight gain, increasing risk of colorectal cancer.

HIGH KJ DIET:
Stimulates rapid growth in children and possible link to colorectal cancer later in adulthood.

SATURATED FAT:
Excess intake of saturated and trans fats have links with colorectal cancer

ALCOHOL:
Increases susceptibility to cancerous growths.

FIBRE:
Soluble fibre may act as a protective factor against colorectal cancer as fibre assists with the removal of wastes

OMEGA 3:
Decrease the growth of cancerous cells by reducing inflammation in the colon
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN OSTEOPOROSIS...

PROTEIN
Excess consumption can increase loss of calcium from bones, which increases risk of osteoporosis.

SODIUM
Excess sodium causes calcium to be excreted in urine, which can decrease bone density an contribute to osteoporosis.

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
Low intake prevents bones from developing and result in reduced bone mass

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
High intake is essential during childhood, adolescence when the skeleton is growing and being mineralised

High intake after age of 3o reduces bone thinning. Especially important for women after menopause

VITAMIN D
Stimulates absorption of calcium and phosphorous, which assists with improving bone density and decrease risk of fracture

HIGH GI FOODS (WEIGHT GAIN)
Overeating high GI foods
(E.g. soft drink/high fat snacks/alcohol) lead to a quick burst of energy. Blood Glucose levels decease quickly, resulting in you feeling hungry quicker, leading to the potential of overeating

ENERGY LEVELS
Lack of B Group vitamins/carbohydrates
on a regular basis could lead to low energy levels,which could:
reduce socialising and interaction with peers, impacting social health
impact on phsical fitness levels, impacting physical health
redce concentration levels at school limiting knowledge gained and impacting intellectual development

DEHYDRATION
Lack of water
can lead to dehydration which can impact on the optimal functioning of the body systems. Symptoms of dehdration include thirst, dry mouth, headaches, dizziness, fainting and in severe cases can result in unconcsiounsness and death
DIETARY GUIDELINE OVERVIEW...

Provide INFORMATION for GENERAL POPULATION, EDUCATORS, HEALTH PROFESSIONALS regarding healthy food choices.

MINIMISE RISK of development of DIET RELATED DISEASES , such as diabetes, obesity or hypertension etc.

Highlight the groups of FOODS and LIFESTYLE PATTERNS that support good nutrition.

Highlights the RECOMMENDED number of SERVES per day for different AGE GROUPs, each SEX as well as PREGNANT and LACTATING WOMEN.
AUSTRALIAN GUIDE TO HEALTHY EATING OVERVIEW....

FOOD SELECTION MODEL incorporated as part of the DIETARY GUIDELINES.

Provides clear guidance about PROPORTIONS of food that should be consumed from the 5 CORE FOOD groups consistent with the ADG.

Demonstrates importance of CONSUMING a VARIETY of foods.

Gives the INDIVIDUAL the ability to ASSESS their DIET.

Advised to consume 'PLENTY OF WATER' and consume 'SMALL AMOUNTS of MONOUNSATURATED/POLYUNSATURATED FATS'

Limit "DISCRETIONARY FOODS' such as soft drinks, sweets, alcohol and full cream products

HEALTHY LIVING PYRAMID OVERVIEW...

Simple VISUAL TOOL

Represents foods from basic food groups and arranges them into 3 sections:
EAT MOST (nutrient dense, low fat),
EAT MODERATELY AND
EAT IN SMALL AMOUNTS (energy dense, higher in fat/sugar)

Promotes food VARIETY and MINIMISING FAT, adequate FIBRE, limiting SALT and sufficient WATER.

Encourages PHYSICAL ACTIVITY to REDUCE RISK of Obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes.

SERVING SIZES NOT included and provision for COMPOSITE FOODS (E.g. Pizza) are NOT outlined within the model.

WHAT CONSTITUTES A SERVE?
APPLYING THE AGHE AND ADG TO YOUR DIET....
SCOTT'S DIET FOR A DAY
(16 Year old Male)
SCOTTS DIET BROKEN DOWN TO THE 5 FOOD GROUPS
SCOTT'S DIET COMPARED TO THE RECOMMENDED INTAKE
(16 Year Old Male)
EVALUATING SCOTT's DIET WITH THE DAILY RECOMMENDATIONS

OBSERVATIONS:
Consuming adequate amounts from meat group
Not consuming enough Vegetables
Meat intake is slightly above recommended

ADVICE FOR SCOTT:
Increase the amount of vegetables consumed
Drink water instead of fruit juice in the morning and with dinner

SERVES
TOTAL SERVES
DAILY
RECOMMENDED SERVES
Make 3
observations
about Scott's diet and give 2 pieces of
advice
to help Scott improve his diet.
HOMEWORK TASK:
DUE THURSDAY MAY 1
Full transcript