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Palak 29

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of HYDROGEN

Hydrogen is the first element in the Periodic Table.
Its electronic configuration is .
It resembles both Alkali metals and Halogens and thus it is placed separately in the Periodic table .
And, you can't
be a halogen as you
are not that reactive.
Hydrogen you can't
be an Alkali metal as
you don;t show metal
Position of Hydrogen
Occurrence of Dihydrogen
Dihydrogen is the most abundent element in the universe .
In free state it is present in volcanic gases and in outer atmosphere of sun and other stars.
Jupiter and Saturn consist mainly of hydrogen.
On the surace of the Earth it is the third most abundent element.
It is also present plants and animal tissues, minerals,rocks etc.
Isotopes of Hydrogen
Isotopes are diff. forms of the same element which have the same atomic no. but diff. mass numbers .
Hydrogen has 3 isotopes with mass no.s 1,2 and 3 respectively. These three are called protium, deuterium and tritium. They differ from each other due to the neutrons present in them.
Preparation of

Lab. Method
Usually prepared by two methods:
By reaction of a metal with acid.
By reaction of metal with alkalies
Commercial Method
By electrolysis of acidified water
By reaction of Steam on Coke
Hydrogen can be prepared by:
physical properties
of Hydrogen
Dihydrogen is:
Colorless, Odorless, Tasteless
Insolouble in Water
Light in weight
Lighter than air
Highly Combustible
Reaction of H2 with O2: they form water

Reaction with N2: it produces ammonia

Reaction with halogens: gives halides

Hydrogen reacts with every oxidizing element.
It combines readily with the halogens which include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine

Chemical Properties of Hydrogens
Manufacture of Ammonia to produce fertilizers.
Used for the manufacture of Metal Hydride.
Production of methanol and hydrochloric acid.
Hydrogen Bomb from the nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes.
Used as Rocket Fuel.
The term hydride is commonly named after binary compounds that hydrogen forms with other elements of the periodic table. Hydride compounds in general form with almost any element, except a few noble gases.
Physical Properties
Structure of Water
Chemical Properties
It has the ability to act as an ACID or BASE.
Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a certain molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water.
Water can be easily reduced to dihydrogen by highly electropositive metals.
From Aqueous soln. many salts can be crystallised as hydrated salts

Hard & Soft Water
Types of Hardness of water
Temporary Hardness REMOVAL
Clark’s method a calculated amount of calcium hydroxide Ca (OH)2 is added to hard water. Due to reaction, insoluble carbonates are obtained which are separated by filtration.
Clark's Method
Temporary hardness in water can be easily removed by boiling. When we are boiling, calcium/magnesium bicarbonate decomposes to give calcium/magnesium carbonate, which is insoluble in water. And thus removes it.
Permanent Hardness Removal
The addition of washing soda results in the precipitation of calcium and magnesium ions as calcium and magnesium carbonates
Treatment with Washing Soda
Ion exchange involves the swapping of calcium and magnesium ions for sodium ions.
It has non planer structure
Hydrogen Paraoxide
Acidifying barium peroxide and removing excess water by evaporation under reduced pressure gives hydrogen peroxide.

Hydrogen Peroxide should be kept in a cool place and must be protected from direct sunlight.
In Labs:
Glass bottles sometimes have small amounts of alkali metal ions dissolved in it. This is why plastic bottles or glass bottles coated with wax are used instead. The brown tint of the bottle prevents light being absorbed by the solution, preventing the oxidation and reduction reaction.
Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide
Hydrogen Peroxide is produced naturally as by-product of oxygen metabolism.

Hydrogen peroxide is used primarily as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent.
It is used as a monopropellant to fuel small engines in satellites.
As an antiseptic it is used to clean wounds.
Mixed with baking soda and salt it can be used as toothpaste.
Hydrogen Peroxide
Chemically known as H2O2, Hydrogen Peroxide is a chemical that has a variety of uses. Available as a pale blue liquid that is slightly more viscous than water, Hydrogen peroxide is a weak acid.
Peroxides are a class of chemical compounds where two oxygen atoms are linked with each other by a single covalent bond.
Heavy Water
Normal water is made of two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom covalently bonded together. This gives the famous H20 formula.
Heavy water has exactly the same structure, except the hydrogen atoms are isotopes of hydrogen called 'Deuterium'.
By: Palak Mall
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