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Copy of Working with Young Children Chapter 8: Middle Childhood

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Megan Watkins

on 9 November 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Working with Young Children Chapter 8: Middle Childhood

Middle Childhood
*Middle childhood or school-age years refers to the span of years between ages 6 and 12.

making strides in becoming self-aware and self-competent
become more self-sufficient and independent
interested/involved in new activities
circle of friends/acquaintances expands beyond own family
friends and school activities take more and more of their time

experience steady physical growth
children are interested in their physical growth
are worried about what others think of them
have much better control of their large muscles and their small muscles
show gains in motor skills, agility and physical strength

Physical Development
**the average 6 year-old kid weighs about 47 lbs, by 12 this may double!
**kids gain about 5-7 pounds per year during middle childhood
**girls usually weigh slightly less than boys until age 11 where they catch up...by 12 they usually outweigh them by about 3 lbs
Weight
Hearing
well developed (midrange sounds develops first, then high-range and then low-range awareness)
ear infections can cause permanent hearing loss if left untreated
for most during this age group, ear infections decrease because of structural changes within the body
Health Concerns
Attention and Memory
memory becomes more controlled
attention improves
can prioritize tasks
better at processing information
better problem solvers
Rehearsal

is the repetition of information after it is used.
Cognitive Development
Conservation meant that change in position or shape of substances does not change the quantity.

Seriation
Seriation is the ability to arrange items in an increasing or decreasing order based on weight, volume, or size.

Classification
Simple classification is the ability to group objects by common attributes, such as size, color, pattern, function, or shape.
Conservation
ability to communicate improves
**vocabulary doubles between the ages of 6-12
grammar improves
learn sentence structure, pronouns, plurals, and tenses
tell jokes or riddles
Language
Self-Concept
Social comparison is a process where people define themselves in terms of the qualities, skills, and attributes they see in others.

Self-concept is the view a person has of herself or himself.
can describe their weaknesses and strengths in very concrete terms
reference groups include not only family but teachers and classmates as well
Social-Emotional Development
Empathy is the ability to understand the feelings of others.
Compassion is being aware of others' distress and wanting to hep them.

Can describe another person's feelings and personality traits
children with poor social skills have trouble identifying other people's feelings and thoughts
Understanding Others
rules determine what roles children can play and their standards for conduct
games are a medium for developing negotiation skills and learning how to cooperate, encourage kids to take other's perspective
learn why rules are important
unfortunately, more time is being used to watch t.v., computers, and video games instead of playing. Kids are not as physically fit.
Games with Rules

Gender Differences
girls tend to hang out with girls, boys with boys
teasing occurs between boys and girls
boys interrupt the girls' play, girls chase away or tattle
boys tend to play in large fixed areas used for team sports
girls typically stay closer to the school building when playing
girls like to jump rope, doing trick on jungle gym, hopscotch
boys like to play basketball, football, and baseball
girls' play has more taking turns and cooperating with others
boys play in pairs or small groups
girls have more select relationships where they share secrets
Peer Group Activities
Moral development is the process of acquiring the standards of behavior considered acceptable by society.
Morality involves understanding and using acceptable rules of conduct when interacting with others.
learn moral behavior by interacting with others; rewards and punishment
kids of middle childhood internalize standards of behavior they learn from their parents and others
Moral Development
middle childhood is the span of years between ages 6-12
physical development slows down
they grow about 2-3 inches per year
gain about 5-7 pounds per year
gross-motor skills and fine-motor skills improve
often most healthiest period for kids
vision and hearing need checked
obesity is getting more and more common
can process and recall information more readily
attention span is longer
memory improves
learn several new concepts
vocabulary and grammar improve
start making social comparisons
develop feelings of empathy
friends are important
morality begins to develop
Summary
learning to adopt new social rules/expectations
become better problem solvers
growing in self-knowledge and understanding
better able to get themselves up in morning, bathe, dress and eat without adult assistance
help with cooking, dishwashing and laundry
able to help with younger siblings
Height
**boys are typically slightly taller than girls until about 9 years of age, then girls grow more at about 10 years
**a typical six-year-old is almost four feet tall
**by 12, about five feet tall
**by the end of middle childhood, girls may reach 90% of their adult height, boys about 80%
arms and legs grow more rapidly, they look less top-heavy than younger years
Gross-Motor Skills
gains in height and weight help with coordination
movements are more fluid and refined
improved balance
perfecting jumping, balancing, throwing, catching, running and sequence foot movements
boys have more physical strength
girls are better in motor skills that require balance, coordination, flexibility or rhythmic movement
Fine-Motor Skills
better control of their fingers and hands
writing is better...more uniform and neater, spacing between letters is improved
Visual perception involves the coordination of the eye and hand.
girls typically set higher standards in writing
finger dexterity allows them to play an instrument
can learn sewing and assemble models with small pieces
Vision
by age 6, most kids are ready to read
can see an object with both eyes at the same time
ability to focus improves
Teeth
begin losing their primary or "baby" teeth
lose central incisors first (upper and lower front teeth)
**typically by age 12, all of the 20 primary teeth will be replaced with permanent teeth
common health problem is tooth decay, especially if poor dental hygiene habits or diets high in sugar
Obesity
is characterized by excessive bodily fat
**considered obese if they weigh 20% more than other people of the same sex, age, and build
80% of obese kids will become obese adults
lack self-esteem
some overeat because of abuse, death in family, alcoholism, or divorce
Mental Operations
change the way they process information
begin to think logically
Operation is defined as the manipulation of ideas based on logic rather than perception.
use logic based on what they have experienced or seen is concrete operations
Self-Esteem
Self-esteem is the belief that you are worthwhile as a person.
school-age kids in order to have a healthy self-esteem, need to believe in themselves
teachers should avoid comparing children
accomplishments need to be viewed in relation to a child's ability and efforts
help kids avoid feelings of helplessness by encouraging them and celebrate any successes

Friendships
friendships take on greater importance
more selective process
most choose close friends of the same sex
friendly kids are more well liked by others, have good communication skills and show sensitivity
some kids are rejected and avoided by their peers, they can lack self-control, be disruptive/hostile, and/or act aggressively
without friends, miss the benefits of interacting with peers. Can cause inability to develop social skills, lack of self-esteem, and loneliness.
Team Sports
children often develop lifelong habits that lead to a healthful lifestyle when they participate in team sports
they learn teamwork
learn how to get along with others
benefit from mental and physical exercise
it is fun!!
kids can get hurt
can feel pressure to win
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