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Ancient Egypt

Made this back in September for school. Hope you like it!
by

Izzy S.

on 13 January 2013

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Transcript of Ancient Egypt

2700 B.C. Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom Religion Isis was worshiped as the ideal mother and wife. She was associated with nature as well as magic. The pharaoh of Egypt was depicted as her child and she was know as the protector of the dead and goddess of children. Isis Ra Ra was the god of the sun. In later years, Ra joined Amun and became Amun- Ra. Aten was also a form of Ra. Amun Amun was King of the Gods. In later years, Amun joined the God, Ra, and became Amun-Ra. Atum The Egyptians believed Atum was the first God on earth and created all of the other Gods. Bastet Bastet was a protector God and was also seen with the head of a cat. Horus Horus was the God of the sky. Egyptians believed the pharoah was the "living Horus". Hathor Hathor was the protective goddess. She was also the goddess of love and joy. Thoth Thoth was the god of writing and knowledge. Thoth was connected to the moon. Ancient Egypt 2700-1000 B.C. Seth Seth was the god of chaos. He represented everything that threatened harmony in Egypt. Osiris Osiris was god of the dead and ruler of the underworld. He was also the god of resurrection and fertility. Nut Nut was the goddess of the sky. Her body created a canopy over the earth. Sobek Sobek was connected with the Nile, and protected the king. Live crocodiles were kept in pools at temples built to honor Sobek. Timeline Merchants, Artisans Peasants, Farmers, Laborers King, Queen, Royal Family Wealthy Landowners, Government Officials, Priests, Army Commanders Egyptian Social Classes Geography
of
Egypt Egypt is located in Northern Africa at 28.8013° N, 31.1711° E Here are the locations of some of the major communities in Ancient Egypt along the River Nile. Clothing Jewelery and Cosmetics Food Jewelry and Cosmetics Clothing The most popular drink in ancient Egypt was beer which was made from bread Drinks Milk was a prized drink Fruits and Vegetable Plants and vegetable ancient Egyptians grew: pomegranates, onions, leeks, beans, garlic, lentils, chick peas, and more Meats Some meats egyptians ate were: fish, beef, antelope and gazelle. Egyptians never ate pork because they thought it was unsanitary to eat. Daily Meals An average Egyptian ate about three times a day Royal Egyptians ate five times a day Religious Foods very important to them Believed that the dead also needed food just like they did. Here is a picture of what the desert in Ancient Egypt would have looked like. Complex Institutions Government Dominated by the Pharaoh
Considered a god
Had absolute control of the Empire and his people.
Government was a theocracy
Controlled by clergy
Pharaoh had advisors and ministers (usually all priests)
Considered only worthy ones
Only ones who could carry out the pharaohs commands Officials Vizier (prime minister)
Chief treasurer
Tax collector
Minister of public works
Army commanders
Nome Governor
Ancient Egypt divided into Nomes
Each governor chosen by Pharaoh
Responsible to Vizier Law Civil Law
Rights of property followed strictly
Peasants could sue rich men
Included protection from poor treatment
ex: employers withholding pay, building on someone's property Ma'at
Represented idea of balance + fairness
Followed idea of equality
Idea excluded slaves + Pharaoh
Pharaoh could make any law he pleased
Punishment extended to families too Criminal Law
Thieves would return goods and pay double the amount stolen
Severe crimes would have you branded and exiled to work in mines
Murderers would be mutilated, burned alive or killed
Courts ruled by judges that the Pharaoh picked Education Mostly for males
In training as scribes or officials
Royal Family had their own tutors
Ordinary people educated at home
There were subjects
Mostly reading, writing, and arithmetic
Important for high ranking jobs
Good handwriting was important
Lessons began in morning, finished by noon
Punishments could be line or being beaten 2200 B.C. 1650 B.C. 1069 B.C. (End of Old Kingdom) (End of Middle Kingdom) (End of New Kingdom) Gods and Goddesses Record Keeping Calenders 10 days in a week
3 weeks in a month
4 months in a season
3 seasons a year
5 holy days
All adds up to 365 days
a year
Egyptians were the first
people to come up with a
365 day year. Heiroglyphics Is the system of writing used by Ancient Egyptians Heiroglyphs could represent the sound of the object or an idea associated with the object. There are three types of glyphs; -determinatives, narrow down meaning of logographic or phonetic words. -logographs, representing morphemes, which are the smallest unit of meaning in a language. -phonetic glyphs, which are single consonant characters that act like an alphabet. Clocks Used sundials and water
clocks
Preferred water clocks
because they could use them
at night, but they had to
constantly refill the water
clocks. Advanced
Technology advanced Cities Trade They often traded their resources like gold, papyrus, linen, and grain. They would trade for things not commonly found in Egypt, such as cedar wood, ebony, and ivory. Promoted friendships between nations. Only allowed to trade in marketplace. Pyramids The different ways that the ramps could have been
placed to build the
pyramids. They used granite, limestone, and sandstone blocks. There would be a special stone cap on the top of the pyramid that was covered in a thin layer of electrum to reflect light. Ramps were used to get rocks into place more easily. as soon as a pharaoh took the thrown, they began to build their tomb
The workers on the pyramids were not slaves, they were ordinary citizens
However, they were usually given tax breaks to keep them working.
Usually teams of men and oxen pulled the blocks up the ramp. Step Pyramid at Saqqara built by King Djoser. King Khufu's Great Pyramid of Giza was built. The first religious words were written on the walls of the royal tombs. Khufu (Cheops), Khephren (Chephren), and Menkare build great pyramids King Userkaf builds temple for sun god Ra at Abusir. For the first time high officials came from people outside of the royal family. Papyrus scrolls from this time have been discovered. They showed record keeping of goods. Pepi I and Pepi II rule - government weakens Capitol moves from Memphis to Herakleopolis in northern Middle Egypt - Upper Egypt controlled by Theban rulers. The political structure of the Old Kingdom collapsed. There was famine, civil disorder, and a high death rate. Egypt split into the north, ruled from Herakleopolis, and the south, ruled from Thebes. Prosperous period with much foreign trade. Many large building projects. Skilled jewelry making. The government became strong with King Amenemhet I's rule. Egypt was unified once again under the rule of Metuhotep. He built an exceptional mortuary complex at Dyr al-Bahri. Capital moved to Thebes - Egypt is reunited by Mentuhotep II Amenemhet moved the capital back to Memphis. Sesostris II reorganized Egypt into 4 regions (northern and southern halves of the Nile Valley and eastern and western Delta). Each king reigned for only a short time. Some of these kings were born commoners. The eastern Delta region broke away during this time. Earliest evidence of diagnostic medicine Capital moved to Thebes - Extensive building The New Kingdom marked the most prosperous time of Egypt's and marked the peak of their power. Clothes were made from flax to make a fine texture Children have 3 sets of clothing: one for summer, winter, and for special occasions Women had a few types of clothing. For work they wore short skirt dresses. During the new kingdom era women wore long pleated dresses with a shawl. During the Old and Middlde kinddom men more kilts and during the New kingdom noblemen sometimes wore a big robe over their kilts. Everyone owned jewelery and cosmetics Everyone wore eye paint, favorite eye paint were green, malachite and black. Loved perfume and rub scented oils on their skin to protect against the harsh desert winds. Face cream, eye paints, and body oils were stored in decorative containers Monetary System Medicine Irrigation Given to show that country
wanted peace Religion was a large part of medicind for ancient egyptians Honey was often used on cuts and wounds. Herbs helps reduce pain, but magic was expected to heal the ailment. They thought that onions and garlic helped with stamina The economy was based on redistribution and reciprocity
The objects of the highest value were the things that were vital in everyday life. Used dams and canals to divert water from the Nile to the fields When the Nile flooded, the water in the canals could be maintained for later use. Nile What happened to Ancient Egypt? The Ancient Egyptian empire became weak in 525BC when Psammeticus III was defeated. Egypt was under the Persian rule until Alexander the Great conquered the Persians and Egypt was under Greek rule. In 30 BC, Octavian took over and Egypt was under Roman rule. Even though the rulers of Egypt changed, they were still allowed to worship their own gods. Then, in the beginning of the first century AD, a conflict broke out between the Greeks, Jews, and Christians because of the rapid spread of Christianity. In the end, Christianity won, which made older paganistic religions marked as evil. So the temples and monuments were robbed. This was marked as the death of the Ancient Egyptian Empire. Survival Main source of water Without it Egypt could not have had a sustained emerging civilization Every year it would flood which would create a rich soil perfect for planting crops Fish in the river also supplied Ancient Egyptians with food Religion Associated the Nile with fertility They believed Hapi was the god of the Nile and he nourished the nation The Pharaoh's job to keep Hapi happy and to reduce the risk of excessive flooding of the Nile Trade Allowed people to travel easily from place to place Trade items like: Building stone, wood from Lebanon, spices and ivory form Pwete, and leopard skins, monkeys and slaves from Nubia Papyrus reeds which grow on the river banks were used to make boats and paper Hatshepsut and Thutmose made Egypt a super power, Amenhotep II began an artistic revolution and Akhenaton and Nefertiti began a new religion with one god. Asiastic kings conquer capital of Hyksos Thustmose I begins military campaigns Building of the Temple of Luxor by Amenhotep III Rule of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) - changed from a polytheism to a monotheistic society Reign of Tutankhamon Seti I restored many monuments. His temple at Abydos has some of the most superior carved wall. Many battles and treaties were written between Egypt Asiatic powers. Ramses II begins building projects Setakht restored the country and Ramesses III was one of the greatest kings. Royal Tombs in the valley of the Kings plundered. The kings weakened and Egypt was no longer a world power Materials Ramps Construction
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