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When Readers Struggle
Transcript of When Readers Struggle
Teaching that Works Introductions.... Four Sections:
What are your
expectations? http://www.online-stopwatch.com/bomb-countdown/full-screen/ Section 1: The reading process and how it changes over time... Section 2: Language systems and the phonological base for learning to read and
write... Section 3: Learning written language—vocabulary and phonics.... Section 4: Specific information
about teaching the reading process... Only about one half (52 percent)
of students in the principal school systems
of the 50 largest cities compelte high shool with a
diploma. That rate is well below the national graduation rate of 70
percent, and even falls short of the average urban districts across the
country (60 percent)... In the most extreme cases(Baltimore, Cleveland,
Detroit, Indianapolis), fewer than 35 percent of students graduate with
a diploma- America's Promis Alliance (Swanson, 2008) Looking at the big picture... Fifteen Keys
to Designing Effective
Instruction... (pg. 498) 1. Provide supplementary lessons. Interventions must supplement, not supplant,
effective classroom instruction. When children fall behind, they need “something
extra” to make faster progress and catch up to their peers. 2. Provide frequent lessons. Struggling readers need a predictable, consistent
schedule of instruction. Daily supplemental instruction helps students gain
momentum; you can reinforce and build on what was learned the day before. 3. Keep the teacher/student ratio low. The effectiveness of individual tutoring is
well-documented. When working with small groups, a one to three
teacher/student ratio is ideal. Three students provide enough varied conversation,
you are able to match their reading levels more close and interact with individuals
as needed. We have found it more accelerative to work with three children for
half of the school year than to work with six for the entire year. 4. Provide highly effective short term services. If the intervention is early and
effective, children will not need many years (or even a whole year) of intervention
instruction. The layers of intervention should be flexible enough that you can
group and regroup students or move from group to individual intervention. 5. Provide highly structured and systematic lessons. Effectiveness and efficiency
depend on carefully designed instructional frameworks in which all the
participants know what to expect and what is expected of them. Lessons should
use a sequence of texts that build on each other in many waysconcepts,
complexity, word difficulty, and other relevant factors. The lessons structure
should include phonics principles, built systematically, but also emphasize
comprehension and a great deal of work with continuous text. 6. Provide fast-paced lessons. For many struggling readers, lessons involve “slowed
down” work and a great deal of boring drill. A fast-paced lesson will engage
learners and keep their attention focused on reading and writing. 7. Focus on comprehension strategies and vocabulary. Too often, reading becomes
a mechanical and tedious task for struggling readers, especially if they are
constantly asked to read texts that are too hard. They need supportive teaching to
help them think about texts and talk about their thinking. They also need some
explicit vocabulary instruction to support their understanding of the content of
increasingly challenging texts. 8. Combine reading and writing. Using writing in combination with reading is a
highly effective way of supporting the growth of both reading and writing skills.
Writing can help students extend their understanding of texts that they read.
During the process of writing, they learn much about letters, sounds, and how
words work. 9. Make systematic use of phonics. Very often, struggling readers need to learn the
building blocks of wordshow words work. Phonics principles should be
explicitly introduced and students given the opportunity for “hands on” or
kinesthetic practice and application. Students need to meet the same principles
again and again and be prompted and reinforced as they apply them in reading
and writing. 10. Develop fluency in reading and writing. Fluency must be an important goal of
intervention lessons. Lessons should include explicit attention to elements of
fluency such as phrasing, pausing, appropriate stress on words, and intonation. 11. Center instruction around high-quality texts. We have said that texts should be
matched to readers’ current abilities, but they must also engage learners. Too
often, texts for struggling readers are inferior or just boring and unappealing.
Readers who struggle need the same variety and quality as proficient readers. 12. Assess difficulties and monitor progress in valid and reliable ways. Effective
instruction is based on excellent assessment. You not only need initial and final
assessments, but it is important to systematically and continuously monitor
progress and keep practical records that inform your day-to-day teaching.
Assessment that involves close observation and recording and analyzing reading
behaviors will be most helpful. 13. Connect the intervention to the classroom. The more the intervention lessons are
connected to the student’s work in the classroom, the more effective they will be.
This does not mean reading the same books as expected in classroom instruction
or helping the student complete assigned work that is too difficult. It does mean
working closely with the classroom teacher, communicating about the child, and
providing some work that the student can do independently in the classroom. 14. Connect intervention instruction to students’ homes. Children need opportunities
to share successes with their families at home and to demonstrate their new
learning with competence. Taking books home, and also some well-designed
phonics work or writing about reading, will create a link between school and
home and promote literacy in homes. 15. Include high quality professional development. We have said that teaching makes
the difference, and this means supporting teachers to help them learn from their
teaching. Many times, professional development is vague and nonspecific, leaving
teachers to apply principles on their own without support. Professional
development should be centered on the problems of practice and offer very
specific guidance for teacher decision making. At the same time, it must help
teachers constantly strengthen their own understanding of the reading/writing
processes and expand their ability to observe for behavioral evidence of learning. Systems for Intervening to Help Readers (page 503) Begin with children who need the most
help and work with as many as you can... Intervention in kindergarten
has high value in preventing
further difficulties. Resources for Planning Intervention Lessons (pg.517):
Selection and Sequencing of Texts
Supporting Early Reading Behaviors
Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Work
Interacting with Students to Support Strategic Processing While Reading
Writing About Reading
Classroom and Home Connections
Assessment and Progress Monitoring A Coherent Curriculum...
It is important not only to have good classroom instruction and layers of intervention but also to design
programs with coherence With a partner, scan the section headed Designing Programs with Coherence: Getting on the Same Page (pages 6-–7) ... What language is signficant to you? http://www.online-stopwatch.com/bomb-countdown/full-screen/ The Structure of
Instruction .... Look at Figure 1-2 on p. 7. What is needed in your school setting to increase coherence?
Look at Figure 1-3 on p. 9. How is each instructional component important for struggling readers/writers? No intervention can be successful unless it
operates within a sound instructional program. What Do Good Readers Do and Struggling Readers Find Difficult? In small groups of 3 (or with grade-level colleagues), make a list of the kinds of behaviors you observe in your struggling readers. What do they do? What do they find difficult to do? Set the list aside. What do proficient readers do? On pp. 30-31, you will find a bulleted list of problems experienced by struggling readers--especially beginning readers. Compare the list to the one you made. If you were thinking about older readers, discuss what might have happened at earlier grades to throw them “off-track.” Areas of Reading Difficulty “All texts make demands on readers in terms of how they are written, illustrated, or designed. Text
demands encompass all aspects of language as well as the unique demands of print. The proficient
reader deals competently with all these demands. As you think about the demands of any text, ask,
‘What must the reader be able to do to process this text with accuracy, fluency, and understanding?’”
(WRS, page 96). TextMatters Scan p. 126 and answer these questions:
What is the role of the independent level text?
What is the role of the instructional level text? http://www.heinemann.com/shared/onlineresources%5CE01826%5Cchapter1.pdf Scan Figure 3–1,Areas of Reading Difficulty (page 33)...Jigsaw-read or scan the ones you find most interesting and discuss them at your tables.
Chapters of WRS are organized to address these factors. Language Matters
Turn to page 134 and look at the information on language systems. Phonological
System- Sounds of Language Semantic System: Meanings that are Carried by Language Syntactic System- Rule Governed Way Words are Put Together in Phrases and Sentences to Convey Meaning Self-Monitoring and Self-
Correcting Using Language Structure Look at p. 361 and scan the list of ways some struggling readers have difficulty using language structure.
How are they alike or different from the readers you teach? Look at the introduction to Pictures of Hugs (level F) on page 362. In what ways is the teacher supporting readers’use of language structure? TeachingMatters WRS suggests three frameworks for intervention lessons... Teaching for Problem-Solving and Independence While Reading Texts Chapters 14 and 15 describe the kinds of conversations that you can have with readers to teach for, prompt for, and reinforce effective systems of strategic activities. You will find examples of teacher language that you can use to teach for, prompt for, and reinforce effective behaviors. This language is summarized in the Prompting Guide 1. Comprehending... Chapter 17 focuses on teaching for comprehending. Comprehension is a process that goes on before, during, after (and sometimes long after) reading.
Teaching can support comprehending before, during, and after reading. Summer Learning Academy 2011
Sommer Picklesimer In groups of three, jigsaw read and choose one strategy from each category to share with the group...