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The Reformation and Wars on Religion

Review for AP European History exam

Andie Gilroy

on 26 April 2010

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Transcript of The Reformation and Wars on Religion

The Reformation Martin Luther Posted 95 Theses October 31, 1517 In Response to... The Sale of Indulgences Lack of clerical education Crusades By clergymen like Johannes Tetzel Believed only the Bible could determine correct religious beliefs Excommunated by Pope Leo X in 1521 Again Condemned by the Diet of Worms Advocated "Justification by Faith Alone" Strengthened appeal to lower classes Wrote: An Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation Babylonian Captivity Replaced 7 sacraments with 2 The Freedom of the Christian Man Against the Murderous, Theiving Hordes of Peasants Political leaders, not all people, should control both church and society Lutheranism Caused: Peasant Revolt in 1524 Peace of Augsburg Stated that the ruler of the area determined whether the state was to be Lutheran or Catholic Ulrich Zwingli Rejected clerical celibacy, the worship of saints, fasting, transubstantiation, and purgatory Protestant reform leader of Switzerland Became a center for protestantism and its spread throughout Switzerland Anabaptists Radical reformers who believed the end was near Strict separation of church and state, as well as spiritual equality for women First sect to establish adult baptisms John Calvin Wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" A logical analysis of christianity Emphasized the concept of "predestination" and believed state and church should be united John Knox Spread Calvinism to Scotland and the Netherlands English Reforms The beginnings of the Anglican church came out of Henry vIII's marriage woes Henry's Act of Supremacy declared him as head of the Catholic church, not the pope England reverted back to Cathlocism with Mary Tudor, but was officially and finally Anglican when Elizabeth took throne
The Tudors Henry vIII "Bloody" Mary Tudor Edward the Boy King Thomas Cranmer held the real power Elizabeth I The Counter Reformation Reforms in the Catholic Church Didn't reform any doctrine, only put an end to immoral church practices Like Ignatius Loyola Founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Served as a key weapon for the Catholics against the Reformation The Council of Trent Met throughout 1545-1563, settling disputes over Catholic doctrine and behavior like: Transubstantiation
The 7 Sacraments
The Efficacy of Good Works
The Role of Saints and Priests
The Index of Forbidden Books
Forbade the Sale of Church offices
Improved seminiaries Led To... The Wars of Religion Charles I and V Abdicated all power in 1556 Split his Throne into two branches Philip II Inherited the Spanish Line Gained control of Spain, Latin America, and the Spanish Netherlands Ferdinand Charles' Brother Inherited the Austrian Line Religious Wars in France Also Known as The War of the Three Henrys Henry of Navarre Henry III Henri de Guise The Eventual Winner Leader of the Ultra Catholic Sanction Moderate-Catholic French King French Leader of the Huguenots Then issued The Edict of Nantes Gave the Huguenots political and military freedom The Dutch Revolt Philip II wished to Re-catholicize the Netherlands Sent his Sister Margaret as regent to eliminate protestantism Then sent the Duke of Alva to oversee military Was overly-brutal and his campaign became known as the Council of Blood Margaret didn't want a part of it so she left William "The Silent" of Orange led the Protestant revolt against Philip II Declared independence from Philip with the Union of Utrecht- 1581 The Thirty Years War The Bohemian Phase The Defenestration of Prague in 1618 Marked the Beginning of the Thiry Years War The Calvinist army is defeated at White Mountain The Catholics win the Bohemian Phase The Danish Phase The Catholics defeated the Protestants Cardinal Richelieu committed to helping the protestants Kept the War from ending during the Danish Phase
The Swedish Phase The French Supported Protestant Sweden 1630-1635 Began by the intervention in Germany of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus in defense of protestantism Protestant victory 1625-1629 1618-1625 The French Phase 1635-1648 Begun by the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632
French troops fought on the line alongside the Huguenot Defeated the Hapsburgs in 1648 The Peace of Westphalia Returned principles to The Peace of Augsburg but included Calvinism Ended the Thirty Years War in 1648
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