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Symbolic Frame Presentation
Transcript of Symbolic Frame Presentation
Planning (long term and short term goals)
Creating preformance apprasals
Practicing collective barganing Organizational Process as Theatre Evaluations are used to assess the preformance of Individuals, departments or programs.
Most organizations preform routine evaluations.
Structured Evaluations (Surveys, Forms)
Unstructured Evaluations/Opinions Evaluation Spark (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Meetings The Yes Insitute Planning The Red Cross According to Cohen and March, there are four symbolic roles that plans serve.
Plans are symbols
Plans become games
Plans become escuses for interaction
Plans become advertisments Symbolic Nature of Plans http://www.redcross.org/www-files/Documents/pdf/international/Haiti/HaitiEarthquake_TwoYearReport.pdf The Red Cross outlines their spending to date, and their future goals such as...
Providing adequate housing
Controling the Cholera outbreak
Conducitng health campaigns to educate citizens about HIV/AIDS
Meetings tend to to deal with issues realting to emotionally charged, symbollically significant pr technically fuzzy issues.
Meetings should include...
Collective Bonding Examples...
Universitys convene visiting commitees or accrediting teams to evaluate schools or departments
Governemnts require routine assesments on programs to evaluate efficacy Evaluations assure spectators that an organization is...
goals are taken seriously
preformance receives attention
improvment is a high priority
The process gives participants an opportunity to...
share opinios and have them publically recognized
escape normal routines
build new beliefs about the organization Ceremony: 4 Major Roles:
(4) Convey message to external constituencies used to create order, clarity, and predictability Episodic
Grander, more elaborate
Convened at times of transition and/or special occassions Ceremony vs. Ritual THE JOY GANG vs. Metaphors:
illustrate the important "as if" qualities of symbols 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr A B one two 12 21 22 Compare 11 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Humor: integrates, expresses skepticism, contributes to flexibility and adaptiveness, and signals status
Play: relaxes rules to explore alternatives encouraging experimentation, flexibility, and creativity In any group a network of informal players deals with human issues outside formal channels.
administers to spiritual needs
intercede in matters of gravest importance The Contribution of Informal Cultural Players Collective Bargaining Labor and managment work to forge divisive standoffs into workable agreements.
For example, Unions want better wages, benefits and working conditions while mamagment aims to keep costs down and maximize prfts for shareholders.
Negotiators have to represent both teams. They must remain in control of the situation.
Bargaining is a ritual that delivers the preformance various audiences demand.
The bargaining drama is designed to convince each side that the outcomes were the result of a heroic batte. The Yes Institute The Yes Institute's goal is to create healthy development of all youth through communication and education on gender and orientation.
People in schools, churches, family and work environements may missunderstand gender and orientation. To work cohesively they need to come to a "collective agreement"
Yes workers like Joesph serve as a mediator between those who are having trouble working cohesively in an enviroment that doesn't support them. Power Power is often atributed to certain preformances.
People who talk a lot
Belong to commitees
Seem close to action
Power is often attributed to particular individuals or groups to account for observed outcomes. The Red Cross Their company is assoicated with power due to thier established history and association with relief efforts.
Their power is associated with their symbol. Symbolic
Assumptions 1. What is most important
is not what happens,
but what it means 2. Activity and
loosely coupled 3. People create symbols to
resolve confusion, find direction,
and anchor hope and faith in the
face of ambiguity and uncertainty 4. Events and processes
are often more
important for what is
expressed than for
what is produced 5. Culture forms the superglue that
bonds an organization,
unites people, and helps an
enterprise accomplish desired
Theory Dramaturgical Theory Institutional Theory Kenneth Burke Erving Goffman Theatre as metaphor Organizations are theatrical Organizations as theater Scripted with dress codes
and codes of conduct Focus is on social interaction
and on internal situations Theatrical part of organizations are
what occurs between organizations
and their publics Some organizations worry more about how innovations appear than how effective they actually are. Organizations are constantly buffeted by larger social, political, and economic trends, so they are a player in a greater world theater. Isomorphism Coercive Mimetic Normative Structure and processes must reflect
widely held myths and expectations When results and products are hard to measure, correct appearance and presentations become the gauge of effectiveness Managing
Impresions Zott and Huy: who gets funded may be determined more by symbols than numbers vs. “knew their audience, capitalized on credentials and business associations, wore appropriate costumes to blend with clients and investors, shone the spotlight on the symbolic value of their products, stresses the cultural vigor of their enterprises, called attention to unique processes, highlighted personal commitment, pointed to short-term achievements, and told good stories” (Bolman & Deal, p. 307). Power Normally viewed as something that can be seized, exercised, or redistributed You are powerful if others think you are Power is often handed out so
that particular groups or
individuals can be held accountable. Successful leadership is having
followers who believe in the
power of the leader Specialized Language Every group develops its own unique set of words, phrases, and metaphors to match its circumstances It both reflects and shapes a groups culture. It allows easy communication among members Is a sign of membership, once learned. Examples transform a place of work into a revered institution and an all encompassing way life Myths What a company stands for, they are untangible, define a unique distinguishing character, and convey a sense of identity Values Turns an organizations ideology and sense of purpose into an image of the future. A vision offers mental pictures linking historical legend and core precepts to future events. Vision Yes Institute's Vision:
A community in which all youth develop as healthy individuals free of suicide, violence, and discrimination Organizations As Cultures Culture is both a product and and a process. Culture Over time an organization develops distinctive beliefs, values, and customs. Encompasses metaphor, humor, and play Synergy of Soul and Spirit Red Cross Has no known culture. Ben and Jerry's aims for a workplace and culture that fits with their brand. Ben and Jerry's Spirit is a feeling essential to the meaning and value of their work Soul is the actual meaning and value Stories and Fairytales Remember only this one thing
The stories people tell have a way of taking care of them
If stories come to you, care for them
And learn to give them away where they are needed
Sometimes a person needs a story more than food to stay alive
That is why we put these stories in each others' memories
This is how people care for themselves
Lopez Soul is the Secret to Success The soul of human service orgs is brought out by strong community spirit which altogether creates organizational culture. Functioning of stories Lead by Example Not Command sparking action
communicating who the company is
taming the grapevine
leading people into the future Stories and Fairytales convey an organizations values and identity to insiders building confidence and support Ritual symbolic act that means more than is says
traditions and values bond groups together one important role of ritual is initiation
becoming a member "rituals anchor us to a center" Organizational Structure As Theater Depicts a workplace as a formalized network of interdependent roles and units coordinated through a variety of horizontal and vertical linkages. Structural Frame vs. Symbolic Frame Depicts a workplace structure as a stage design: an arrangement of space, lighting, props, and costumes that make the drama vivid and credible to its audience. Dramaturgical Role:
Reflecting and conveying prevailing social values and myths
changing institution or environment
nonconformity invites question Red Cross Ben and Jerry's core value is to promote social and economic justice QUESTIONS? Drawing Exercise!