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Transcript of INTELLIGENCE
1. If you count from 1 to 100, how many 7's will you pass on the way?
2. Four years ago, Jane was twice as old as Sam. Four years on from now, Sam will be 3/4 of Jane's age. How old is Jane now?
3. Which letter comes next in this series of letters?
B A C B D C E D F ?
4. One of the following proverbs is closest in meaning to the saying, "Birds of a feather, flock together." Choose one:
a) "One swallow doesn’t make a summer."
b) "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush."
c) "A man is known by the company he keeps."
d) "Fine feathers make fine birds."
e) "Don’t judge a book by its cover."
5. How many four sided figures are in this diagram?
6. Which of the following objects is least like the others?
7. Look at the drawing. The numbers alongside each column and row are the total of the values of the symbols within each column and row. What should replace the question mark?
8. The same word can be added to the end of GRASS and the beginning of SCAPE to form two other English words. What is the word?
4. "A man is known by the company he keeps.”
the ability to learn from experience, to acquire knowledge, to reason and to solve problems, to deal with people and objects, and to adapt effectively to the environment.
Intelligence: “the characteristics of an individual’s thought processes that enable the individual to take and maintain a direction without becoming distracted, to adapt means to an end, and to criticise his or her own attempts at problem solution.”
Developed the the first intelligence test to be used throughout the world with his colleague Theophile Simon
Intelligence is associated with mental functions such as reasoning, memory, vocabulary, length and quality of attention, and perceptual judgment.
Assumed intelligence is age related
Complete LA 11.2 p.460
Binet’s test of intelligence
Binet’s tests were designed specifically for school children.
The Binet-Simon test was published in 1905 for children aged 3-11.
The test consisted of sets of questions arranged in increasing order.
The child’s score was called ‘mental level’.
‘mental level’ is now called mental age (MA).
The child’s actual age is called chronological age (CA).
Comparing an individual’s mental age with their chronological age indicated whether their mental ability was similar to, better than, or lower than that of other children their age.
Binet believed that children whose MA was two year below their CA required ‘separate instruction’.
After Binet died in 1911 his tests were translated into English.
His test was adapted for use in the United States by Lewis Terman (a lecturer at Stanford University and an intelligence test developer).
Terman added items suitable for adults
He published the test in 1916 as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
Since then the Stanford-Binet has been revised 5 times.
The current version measure the intelligence of people aged between 2 and 85+.
The cognitive abilities assessed are: fluid reasoning knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory.
Intelligence: “the global and aggregate capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.”
Romanian-born American psychologist.
Wechsler believed that the approaches to describe and test intelligence adopted by psychologists at the time were too narrow because they only focused on the abilities that enable people to do well at school.
Wechsler proposed that intelligence involved a great range of abilities not only relevant to school, but to everyday life.
Verbal abilities: language dependent eg. Vocabulary and comprehension.
Performance abilities: less dependent on language eg. Arranging blocks to form a pattern.
Wechsler believed that both verbal and perfomance abilities are important components of intelligence and are different ways in which intelligence can be expressed. His tests reflect this.
Wechsler suggested four conditions which should be present for any behaviour to be described as intelligent:
2. Goal directed
Wechsler believed that definitions of intelligence reflected whatever any individual, group or society at any given moment view as worthwhile, valuable and meaningful.
LA 11.3 p.461
Wechsler's tests of intelligence
First developed in 1939.
WAIS-IV: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
WISC-IV: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
WPPSI-III: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
The current version of the WAIS (2008) has 10 core tests organised into four categories: verbal comprehension, perpetual reasoning, verbal memory, processing speed.
The WAIS is the most widely used test of intelligence in Australia and throughout the world.
Useful for diagnosing learning difficulties and problems experienced by those with brain damage.
Intelligence: “a psychological potential to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in at least one cultural context; there are multiple intelligences.”
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner believes that each intelligence is independent of one another and exists in different parts of the brain.
Savant syndrome: limited mental abilities and score low on intelligence tests but have an extraordinary specific ability. Eg. Recalling specific detailed information, playing a musical instrument.
2 key claims:
All people possess all these intelligences
All individuals have a unique combination of the different intelligences.
Some exceptional individuals are strong in several kinds of intelligences but most are only strong in a few.
Critics have argued that some of the intelligences are not really mental abilities but talents or human virtues.
Gardner argues that the importance of certain abilities varies in different societies. Eg. In in contemporary Western society we put value on literacy and numeracy but sailors in Micronesia find the ability to navigate among hundreds of island using only the stars and their bodily feelings much more important.
Multiple intelligences are not easily measurable but they can be assessed in environments such as school.
Tests of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
Gardner believes that it is impossible to create a test to measure any of the intelligences.
He believes that intelligence cannot be accurately measured using traditional approaches.
He has also expressed concerns about the labelling and stigmatisation that intelligence testing can lead to.
Despite this, some MI tests have been developed.
Intelligence: “intelligence has three aspects: componential, experiential, and contextual”.
Sternberg describes three parts of intelligence:
Academic problem solving tasks that have a single correct answer. Can be described as ‘book smart’.
Dealing with new situations by drawing on existing knowledge and skills. Open ended and many possible answers.
Adapting to everyday life by using existing knowledge and skills. Can be described as street smart.
The three parts involve abilities that are different, separate, and can become stronger or weaker over time.
An individual may be stronger in one or more of these parts.
Successful intelligence: being sufficiently strong in all three parts.
Sternberg’s test of intelligence
Sternberg published the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT) in 1992.
The STAT is divided into nine different levels according to age groups from preschoolers to adults.
A separate score can be obtained for each of the three parts of intelligence.
Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of psychometric abilities
Psycho: psychological abilities
Psychometrics has been applied to the study and measurement of intelligence for over 100 years.
This model is a combination of Cattell and Horn’s Gf-Gc theory and Carroll’s three-stratum theory.
The CHC model describes intelligence as consisting of cognitive abilities arranged in a hierarchical structure of two strata (levels) called broad and narrow abilities.
The CHC model is used for determining the validity, reliability and value of intelligence tests.
The CHC model is the foundation on which many new and revised intelligence tests have been based.
Salovey and Mayer’s ability-based model of emotional intelligence
Is our ability to recognise, understand and manage our own emotions and those of others a kind of intelligence?
Is there a relationship between thinking and feeling?
Emotional intelligence (EI): the ability to recognise the meaning and emotions and relationships, and to reason and problem solve on the basis of emotions
Salovey and Mayer's four branch model of emotional intelligence, which is often called an ability-based model of emotional intelligence
Some argue that EI stretches the meaning of intelligence too far and it is best described as a social skill
Most psychologists support the importance of the idea that EI can provide useful information about understanding and predicting behaviour
EI may be a useful predictor in the areas of relationships, careers and mental health
Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
One of the most widely used tests of emotional development
Ability-based test designed to measure the four branches of Mayer and Salovey’s ability-based model
IQ and its calculation
Intelligence Quotient (IQ): a numerical score on an intelligence test
Used to compare intelligence, as measured by an intelligence test
IQ = MA/CA x 100
A score of 100: intelligence is the same as the average person of the same age
This system does not make sense for adults
The score on an intelligence test no longer has to be calculated. It is read directly from tables for age groups that accompany the test. A person’s score is compared to the average score of those in their age group.
Does IQ equal intelligence?
An IQ score doesn’t show the amount of intelligence a person has
IQ is a number that tells us how a person performed on a test as compared with others in the same age bracket
An IQ score depends on many factors: they type of test taken, the conditions of testing, the personal characteristics of the test taker
Validity and Reliability
For a test to be useful it must actually measure what it is suppose to measure: intelligence
A test must consistently measure intelligence each time it is given.
culture fair tests
Cultural bias: the tendency of a test to give a lower score to a person from a culture different from the group that the test has been developed for.
Culture fair tests: attempt to provide items that will not disadvantage a test-taker on the basis of their cultural/ethnic background.
Some psychologists have argued that a culture fair test is impossible to develop.
Strengths and Limitations
of Intelligence Tests
for intelligence testing
This standard ensures that the intelligence test used by the psychologist is carefully selected so that it is appropriate for the test taker.
It also helps ensure that the test is given in accordance with the manual instructions.
This standard also makes sure that the test-taker’s answers are interpreted in the correct way.
The test must be chosen, administered, and interpreted appropriately and accurately by the psychologist.
The test-taker must be fully informed about the nature and purpose of the testing procedures to be used, limitations and results.
The psychologist must use language that the test-taker or their parent/guardian can understand and use appropriate examples to explain information about the test and results.
The psychologist must clearly indicate the limitations of the test and limitations to the usefulness of results.
The psychologist must support the proper use of intelligence tests in the community by not allowing them to be misused by people who are unauthorised or unqualified to use these tests.
Giving large amounts of information about the contents of a test to a person not authorised to use the test may leave it open to misuse.
Factors the influence intelligence
Factors the influence intelligence
Interaction of genetic and environmental factors on intelligence
It is suggested that inherited genes set up the upper and lower limits of an individual’s intellectual capabilities and environmental factors play a significant role in determining whether and individual will reach their genetically determined potential.
Psychologists have studied the roles of inheritance and environment by examining the IQ scores of people who are genetically related to each other in varying degrees.
They have also examined the similarity of IQ scores of people who share genes but not experiences, those who share experiences but not genes, or both.
The Flynn effect
A research finding that IQ scores have risen over time by about 15 points.
Since genes are unlikely to have changed much during this 50 year period, the increase in IQ scores in probably due to environmental factors.
Some possible explanations for the Flynn effect include students staying at school for longer, improved educational methods, smaller families with more intensive parenting, increased exposure to technology, better nutrition and health care.