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Shot Types

Shot Composition
by

Dayna Kreider

on 25 May 2015

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Transcript of Shot Types

Examples
Lets see how you do it
Rule of Thirds
Character Spacing
Mission Time!!
Fun Angles to Try
Action Steps
Hit me with your best shot
Camera Movement
Character Proxemics
1. Find a partner and plan out your video.
2. You will have the next 15min to capture your shots
3. Stay on Seacoast grounds
4. Communicate with each other and take turns getting the shots
5. Don't worry if you don't finish, just bring back what you have afer 15min.
SOFTWARE
THE ESSENTIALS
Rule of Thirds
Story Arc
Camera Movement
Stages of Production
Pre-Production
Production
Post Production
Hitchcock Zoom
Vertigo Effect
Zolly
Push/Pull
Dutch Angle
Dolly Zoom
Other Questions?
?
Framing
Angles
Lighting
Character
Placement

Character Spacing
Composition
Shot Types
Center:
dominance, importance
Bottom: vulnerable, powerless
Edges: Less Important
Top: Power, authority
Edges: Less Important
1.
2.
Make a video using various angles and shots. Start experimenting with your own shots and put meaning behind them.
Watch a movie with good cinimatography (Les Mis, The Artist, Lincoln) And pay attention to the shots and angles. Use the handout as a checklist of things to look for.
Scavenger Hunt:
Use your shotlist to get the shots you need.
MEDIA ARTS
Notes
Today's Notes
any shot that is taken from the vantage
point of a character in the film, showing what
a character sees.
10. POV = Point of View Shot
a shot from the top of their heads to at least their feet.
gives actors room to move within a shot.
orients the audience before the camera cuts to an interior shot.
Extreme Long Shot
Generally used to set the scene.
Normally shows the exterior
(outside of a building or landscape)
Long
Shot (LS)
Medium Shot (MS)
Is a standard shot that usually shows the character from belly button to slightly above the character's head

Used for talking and for action detail
Medium
Close Up (CU)
Usually above the persons chest or the nape of the neck to the top of the head or just slightly above the top of the head
to create intimacy or to show emotional responses from characters
Focusing on eyes or mouth,
magnifies beyond what the human eye may normally see
Extreme
Close up
(ECU)
the angle between the camera and the object
The more extreme the angle the more symbolic the shot
Birds
eye view
A view from directly overhead
Usually using a crane
Subjects look smaller and therefore insignificant
Eye level
Camera's eye is at the same eye level as the subjects
most common view
shows subjects as we would expect to see them in real life.
a fairly neutral shot.
Low Angle
Oblique Angle
Sometimes the camera is tilted to suggest imbalance, transition and instability (very popular in horror movies).
Camera Movement
Actually moving the camera while filming
There is a convention in the video, film and television industries which assigns names and guidelines to common types of shots, framing and picture composition.

Shots are all about composition. Rather than pointing the camera at the subject, you need to compose an image. Framing is the process of creating composition.
The rules of framing video images are essentially the same as those for still photography.
Look for horizontal and vertical lines in the frame (e.g. the horizon, poles, etc). Make sure the horizontals are level, and the verticals are straight up and down (unless of course you're purposely going for a tilted effect).
These terms refer to the amount of room in the frame which is strategically left empty. Without this empty space, the framing will look uncomfortable.
Headroom
Tthe amount of space between the top of the subject's head and the top of the frame.
A common mistake in amateur video is to have far too much headroom, which doesn't look good and wastes frame space. In any "person shot" tighter than a MS, there should be very little headroom.
too much
too little
just right
Everything in your frame is important, not just the subject. What does the background look like? What's the lighting like? Is there anything in the frame which is going to be distracting, or disrupt the continuity of the video?

Pay attention to the edges of your frame. Avoid having half objects in frame, especially people (showing half of someone's face is very unflattering). Also try not to cut people of at the joints — the bottom of the frame can cut across a person's stomach, but not their knees. It just doesn't look right.
Basic shots are referred to in terms relative to the subject. For example, a "close up" has to be a close up of something. A close up of a person could also be described as a wide shot of a face, or a very wide shot of a nose.
Camera Distance
Choker Shot
Basic shot types
The choker shot is very similar to the extreme closeup (ECU), and the two terms are often used interchangeably. A typical choker shows the subject's face from just above the eyebrows to just below the mouth, as pictured left. Other common variations are illustrated below.
Our preferred definition for the choker is a shot half way between a closeup and an extreme closeup.
As with all shots that are this tight (i.e. zoomed in this much), you really need a good reason to use it. Chokers should be used judiciously as not everyone will be flattered in such a revealing view.
Cut Away (CA)
A cutaway is a shot that's usually of something other than the current action. It could be a different subject (eg. this cat when the main subject is its owner), a close up of a different part of the subject (eg. the subject's hands), or just about anything else.

The cutaway is used as a "buffer" between shots (to help the editing process), or to add interest/information.
A high angle shows the subject from above, i.e. the camera is angled down towards the subject.
This has the effect of diminishing the subject, making them appear less powerful, less significant or even submissive.
Camera is placed low, looking up
gives the impression of being more powerful or dominant.
The Basics Wrap Up
Once you're comfortable with the do's and don'ts, you can become more creative. Think about the best way to convey the meaning of the shot. If it's a baby crawling, get down on the floor and see it from a baby's point-of-view (POV). If it's a football game, maybe you need to get up high to see all the action.
Look for interesting and unusual shots. Most of your shots will probably be quite "straight"; that is, normal shots from approximate adult eye-level. Try mixing in a few variations. Different angles and different camera positions can make all the difference.
For example; a shot can become much more dramatic if shot from a low point. On the other hand, a new and interesting perspective can be obtained by looking straight down on the scene. Be aware that looking up at a person can make them appear more imposing, whereas looking down at a person can diminish them.
Watch TV and movies, and notice the shots which stand out. There's a reason why they stand out — it's all about camera positioning and frame composition. Experiment all the time.
Camera Movement
Arc

An arc shot is a camera move around the subject, somewhat like a tracking shot.

In mathematics, an arc is a segment of the circumference of a circle. A camera arc is similar — the camera moves in a rough semi-circle around the subject.

Some definitions of the arc shot describe it as being tracking and dollying at the same time, i.e. simultaneous side-to-side and in-and-out movement.
Camera Movement
Dolly
A dolly is a cart which travels along tracks. The camera is mounted on the dolly and records the shot as it moves. Dolly shots have a number of applications and can provide very dramatic footage.

In many circles a dolly shot is also known as a tracking shot or trucking shot. However some professionals prefer the more rigid terminology which defines dolly as in-and-out movement (i.e. closer/further away from the subject), while tracking means side-to-side movement.

Most dollies have a lever to allow for vertical movement as well (known as a pedestal move). In some cases a crane is mounted on the dolly for additional height and flexibility. A shot which moves vertically while simultaneously tracking is called a compound shot.

Some dollies can also operate without tracks. This provides the greatest degree of movement, assuming of course that a suitable surface is available. Special dollies are available for location work, and are designed to work with common constraints such as doorway width.

Dollies are operated by a dolly grip. In the world of big-budget movie making, good dolly grips command a lot of respect and earning power.

The venerable dolly faced serious competition when the Steadicam was invented. Most shots previously only possible with a dolly could now be done with the more versatile Steadicam. However dollies are still preferred for many shots, especially those that require a high degree of precision.
Camera Pan
Camera Movement
A pan is a horizontal camera movement in which the camera moves left and right about a central axis. This is a swiveling movement, i.e. mounted in a fixed location on a tripod or shoulder, rather than a dolly-like movement in which the entire mounting system moves.

To create a smooth pan it's a good idea to practice the movement first. If you need to move or stretch your body during the move, it helps to position yourself so you end up in the more comfortable position. In other words you should become more comfortable as the move progresses rather than less comfortable.
Camera Movement
Camera Tilt
A tilt is a vertical camera movement in which the camera points up or down from a stationary location. For example, if you mount a camera on your shoulder and nod it up and down, you are tilting the camera.

Tilting is less common than panning because that's the way humans work — we look left and right more often than we look up and down.

The tilt should not be confused with the Dutch Tilt which means a deliberately slanted camera angle.

A variation of the tilt is the pedestal shot, in which the whole camera moves up or down.
Camera Movement
Camera Zoom
A zoom is technically not a camera move as it does not require the camera itself to move at all. Zooming means altering the focal length of the lens to give the illusion of moving closer to or further away from the action.

The effect is not quite the same though. Zooming is effectively magnifying a part of the image, while moving the camera creates a difference in perspective — background objects appear to change in relation to foreground objects. This is sometimes used for creative effect in the dolly zoom.

Zooming is an easy-to-use but hard-to-get-right feature of most cameras. It is arguably the most misused of all camera functions. See our camera zoom tutorial for more information.
Shot Types
Framing
Camera Angles
Character Placement
Lighting
Framing
Rules of Framing
Lead room
The shot of the horses running has some leading room for them to run into
The shot of the woman has some looking room for her to look into.
One more thing...
How much do we see?
How far away is it?
What are you trying to express with this shot?
or Dutch Tilt
a shot cropped between the shoulders and the belt line. Also called a bust shot.
aka Full Shot
aka Establishing Shot
aka Wide Shot
aka Master Shot
Close Up
(CU)
a shot of someone or something taken from the perspective from the shoulder of another person.
The back of the shoulder and head of this person is used to frame the image
when two characters are having a discussion
usually follows an establishing shot
Over the Shoulder (OTS)
High Angle
Composition of a shot
Composition of a shot
A pedestal shot is another camera shot in which requires a physical movement of the camera. This time up and down. Rather than tilting upwards the camera physically moves.
Tracking, Crabbing and Trucking
Just to confuse matters, a dolly is also used for tracking/trucking, which has also acquired the nickname crabbing.

Instead of moving in the camera follows the action by a sideways physical movement, parallel to the action
Pedestal
Zooming
Zoom the camera in or out to include more or less of the scene.
The camera stays still and never moves.
Used to focus on an object or person.
Zooming in FAST can be used to shock
SLOW zoom normally used to draw attention.
Panning
tripod attached to rails so that the camera operator can slide along and capture the action.
It’s great for scenes that are following action.
can create a physical zoom where the camera moves in (or out)
Dolly
rotate the camera along the horizontal axis
A pan often ends with a couple of seconds of no movement. It slows down the shot and makes the next cut more natural.
Tilting
Basically the same as the pan however instead of moving the camera left or right, you simple move it up or down.
Center:
dominance, importance
Bottom: vulnerable, powerless
Edges: Less Important
Top: Power, authority
Edges: Less Important
Character Placement
Where the director places the character depending on the importance of the role.
Lets see how you do it
Story Arc
- Writing
- Directing
- Working Camera
- Acting/Speaking
- Editing, special effects, animation
Stages of Production
Pre-Production
Production
Post Production
(12-25ft.) formal and rather detached- ELS
Proxemic patterns (the relationships between objects) can be influenced by external considerations. People use space in 4 major Proxemic patterns:
(skin contact to about 18 inches) - love comfort and tenderness (ECU, CU)
Social
Proxemics
Intimate
Personal
Public
(18 inches to 4 ft.)- arm’s length away, reserved for friends rather than lovers (MCU-WS)
(4ft.-12ft.)-, impersonal business and casual relationships displays of emotion are bad taste. FSD
The arc is used to circle around an object.
Best to use a steady cam or a Shoulder Support Pad. This style of shot becomes a lot easier and looks so much more professional than attempting to complete a hand held shot.
They use this shot in a lot of the TV dancing shows. The camera operator runs onto the dance floor around the subject and back off again all in less than 10 seconds.
Arc
Alfred Hitchcock
"Vertigo" Shot
aka Dolly Zoom
First used in Alfred Hitchcocks movie ‘Vertigo,’ the name stuck and has been used ever since.
requires a zoom and a dolly shot at the same time.
You zoom your camera out when dollying in.The result is that your actor keeps the same proportions however the background will suddenly stretch out.
Or zoom your camera in while dollying out

Purposeful Use of Line
The Meaning of Camera Movement
YOUR ASSIGNMENT
Create
3 videos

and post them on your media arts

instagram

Here are your themes:
1. Someone eating

2. Someone telling a secret

3. Someone walking the warrior way

You must use at least
5 shot types & 3 camera movements
in each video.
Use this link as reference:
http://www.mediacollege.com/video/shots/

Be sure to hashtag all your shot types and camera movements under each post.

http://www.danville.k12.pa.us/webpages/mfleming/files/Shot%20Types.mov
Examples
http://www.danville.k12.pa.us/webpages/mfleming/files/Camera%20Angles.m4v
Full transcript