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Believed he was the source of all light in the nation
Saw himself as: the center of French life and culture Beautiful, selfish, extravagant
Austrian Princess - married to Louis XVI at age 15
Interested in the Glam and Glitz of court life
Had idealized view of the peasants It was passed by the National Assembly
Sets out human rights that governments may not overlook
Ideas came from: John Locke and the philosophes
It guaranteed Freedom of speech, religion, security and property.
It also put limits to the power of the government. One of the philosophes:
Rousseau loved nature.
Believed that society needed a social contract
Everybody had to abide by certain rules One of the philosophes:
Believed that the monarch should have less power
Believed that the monarch should cooperate more with the parliament
Unpopular with most European monarchs Another political club:
Met at the monastery of Saint Jacques
The club where the Girondists branched out from
Jacobins became radical
became involved in a struggle for power with the Girondists
Won the fight
The most radical leader of the revolution
Opposed to any deals with the monarchy
He spent a portion of his life being poor, hiding/living in the sewers of Paris.
He acquired a skin disease which eventually caused his death in an unexpected way.
The First Estate (Clergy) Higher Clergy (10%): Clerical Nobility Lower Clergy (90%): Parish priests and Monks/Nuns Made up of: Religious leaders/heads of Church Made up: 1% of total French Population Controlled: 10% of all land in France Church received a tithing: 10% tax from people that lived on their land to run church. The Second Estate (Nobility) Consisted of: French nobility and royalty
Made up: 1.5% of total French Population
Exempted from: Forced labour, most forms of taxation and the taille (Oldest form of direct taxation) They were reluctant to reform. Lived on: Rich manors that were inherited
Controlled: 25% of the land.
For Money: Collected taxes and rent from peasants that lived on their land. Third Estate (Commoners) Included two groups: Urban and rural
Urban: Bourgeoisie & Wage labourers
Rural: Workers & Serfs who paid high taxes with no wealth. They had little rights.
Population: Largest Estate – 97% of the French Population Owned: 0% of the land
Paid: 10% tithing to the church, rent to the feudal lord and land tax to the king.
Money/wages: None – extremely poor and worked for the feudal lord as a living. Role during Revolution: Supporters of the King Role during the Revolution: Protested against the monarch Role during the Revolution: Supporters and had big influence on the monarch Built his own great palace in Versailles
Louis XVI later lived there, giving him more power and safety at first(away from Paris's "Protestors").
Lost many wars and money to put his country in debt. Died a unpopular king. Role in the Revolution: Louis XVI Unprepared to take on the role of king: at age 20
He was: Shy, awkward, and misfit
Hobbies: Hosting parties, hunting, eating, and making/fixing locks Role during the Revolution:
Louis was the king who reigned at the time.
Spent lots of money on himself and extravagant lifestyle
Louis tried to use military power, using armies to fight back against the protestors.
He was captured at Versailles and brought back to Paris. In attempt to escape to Austria, he was captured and sentenced to death Role during the Revolution:
Was hated for her selfishness
Didn't care at all for the poor throughout her reign (Angered them)
Spent a lot of money on possessions.
Example: The Diamond Necklace
Chose incompetent government ministers
Made fun of French tradition National Assembly Established by the third estate, after breaking with other estates.
Led by Count Mirabeau
It would hope to be a new form of government Role in the Revolution:
It's goal: to make a new constitution for France.
Tennis Court Oath secured more meetings and forced the King to back down and order the other estates to join in. Role in the Revolution:
Secured the rights of the citizens
Gave "Natural" human rights
Diminished the government's power National Guard Army established by citizens in Paris
Commanded by Marquis de Lafayette
Why? To keep order in Paris and to fight off the King's incoming mercenary troops. Role in the Revolution:
To secure the PEOPLE's power over the KING Role in the Revolution:
Became an influential writer
His ideas and views impacted the many decisions and works of the people.
"Natural law" believed by Rousseau became a key idea in the Declaration of the Rights of Man Voltaire He was against the Church
He was for freedom thought
His ideas were accepted by the French Society
Believed that absolute monarchy for the most part was good
Hated injustice Most famous of the Philosophes... Role in the Revolution:
Thought of ideas and brought ways of thinking to the people for them to make smarter decisions
His theories downplayed the church's power.
His ideas were favored by everyone! He became a popular figure. Role in the Revolution:
Like the other philosophes, Montesquieu shared his views on matters like the religion and society of France
This impacted and supported the period of "enlightenment". Girondists Political Club:
Came at a time when there was democracy...
Came from an area of France called, "Gironde".
Started out moderate and middle-class
They wanted seeping changes in the government
Viewed as too conservative
Role in the Revolution:
Took over when Democracy was the form of government
There were no political parties, instead there were political clubs
They made pamphlets and held regular meetings
Led the Revolution Role in the Revolution:
Were responsible for the coming of the Reign of Terror
They helped Danton and Robespierre take control of the revolution
The group that had the royal family executed and put an end to monarchy. Madame Roland was a leader Sans-Culottes Group that constituted of the poor people from Paris and other large cities.
Resented the bourgeoisie and were against the business class
They wanted the national government to lower prices and supply bread to the poor
They formed mobs and attacked people who were against the revolution.
Supported the radicals and the execution of the king and aristocrats
Arrested and guillotined many leaders who were thought to be too moderate in the revolution. Impact on the Revolution:
They were the violent of the groups and clubs.
Though fighting for many good causes like food for the poor, they killed and executed many innocent people.
Overall, they led a revolutionary, violent phase where people in France turn on each other Known as the fiery pamphlet writer Role in the Revolution:
Compared to Robespierre and Danton, Marat lived a much shorter life.
He didn't even get to see the reign of terror happen.
He set the basis for the Revolution and brought up the fiery group Sans-Culottes. Marat was assassinated by Charlotte Corday (a Girondist), while treating his skin disease in the bath. Danton Radical leader of the Revolution
Took over and gained power after Marat's death
Made Patriotic Speeches along with Marat and Robespierre to persuade the people of France to fight
Danton was executed in 1974
Role in the Revolution: Danton laid a solid foundation and won the heart of subjects so that Robespierre would have the authority to rule during the reign of terror.
He was also successful in taking part in the Revolution and ultimately achieving his goal: to end the monarchy Robespierre The one who survived the longest of the radical leaders
Like others, they opposed deals with the monarchy
Robespierre was the smartest out of the three. Example: Suggested not to make war on Austria, knowing that they'd lose.
After Danton's execution in 1794, Robespierre took over France and ruled like a dictator.
He strives to be the strongest, arresting and executing all oppositions to the government and people who opposed him. Role in the Revolution:
Robespierre was the figure mostly responsible during the Reign of Terror.
Robespierre was a popular figure throughout his life.
He made patriotic speeches, stood up for the people, and proposed laws that the king had to abide by, to satisfy the poor.
He was an influential speaker, changing how the people thought.
Tennis Court Oath a pledged that the delegates would continue meeting until France had a new form of government. Delegates retreated to the Royal Tennis Court, after the king attempted to lock up their meeting site. Louis XVI responded with some democratic reforms but his offer was rejected.
He stepped down and had to order the other two estates to join the National Assembly. Role in the Revolution:
It secured the authority and rights of the National Assembly.
Showed the king their determination, forcing him to back down and lose power, himself. Fall of the Bastille People formed mobs to riot over bread prices and attack prisons to free political leaders
Louis responded by sending mercenary troops to Paris and Versailles.
Before this... The Fall: Happened on July 14, 1789
A great mob attacked the royal prison and fortress (Bastille)
Troops sent by Louis joined it instead of dispersing it. Prisoners were freed The Mob cut off the Governor's head Role in the Revolution: Since the Bastille represented the power of the king, when the people captured it, it was a great threat to the King. Political leaders who served as prisoners inside were released. Important event that demonstrated the people's power. March on Versailles Purpose: the government needed to come to Paris and not be isolated in Versailles Versailles was 50 kilometers away from Paris Who participated? Crowds of Women accompanied by hundreds of others, including Lafayette and the National Guard. They stormed the palace and threatened the King and Queen Role/Result:
The King and Queen were now in the control of the citizens The king and queen are captured and brought back to Paris When the king wanted to run away (which he did), he would be guilty and they could sentence him to death. Law of Suspects A decree passed by the National Convention on 17 September 1793 Happened during the reign of Terror, and more specifically, Robespierre's reign The law/decree provided for the arrest of anyone of noble family or who had held office before the revolution Being unable to produce a signed certificate of citizenship meant that one would be immediately arrested and executed Role during Revolution: Gave Robespierre more power and authority, as a dictator. Got rid of his offenders: often nobles who supported king