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London, England 1775-1875

A Tale of Two Cities Project

Alanna Timmins

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of London, England 1775-1875

LONDON 1775-1875 LONDON London, England Revolution Great Britain had one of the best armies in the world in the 1700s. In 1775 most of the British military was focused on its rebelling American colonies. Two of the most influential battles of the war were The Battle of Bunker Hill and the Battle of Yorktown. In June of 1775, the Continental forces held Breed’ Hill. The British forces found out and attacked them. This battle was known as the battle of Bunker Hill. It was one of the first battles of the war. The British won the battle but took many casualties. The Americans lost the battle because they ran out of ammunition and had to retreat. This action proved that this conflict was a full out war. It lasted from 1775 to 1783. The battle that won the war for the colonies was the Battle of Yorktown, which ended the fighting until the peace treaty was signed in Paris, France. Military The British military was one of the finest in the world. It was put to the test by one of its colonies in the Americas. Four of the battles showed the British strengths and weaknesses. The Battle of Quebec was the first loss of the Continental army and caused the death of one of its high ranking officers. Its purpose was to get Great Britain out of the Providence of Quebec. The battle was confusing because Canadian militia was fighting for both sides. It was very important to the
war effort. The battle of the Monmouth was the last battle of the war fought between the two
main armies and it was also the longest battle of the war. It is a tie because both sides
failed to destroy the opposing army. The Battle of Savannah was won by the British. This
victory gave them a base in the south and remained in British control until the end of
the war. The Siege of Charleston was another British victory. The significance of this
victory was that it gave the British control of most of the Southern colonies. Sea battles
between the American and British ships were important to each other’s cause. Many key
battles were won by both sides but it seemed that the British war machine was too much
for the colonies. In the end, the colonies beat the British because of their desire to win
, and allies which crippled Great Britain for years to come. Government (Monarchy)

London, England during the late 18th century and early 19th century was a monarchy and still is to this day. There are multiple types of monarchies, but the main two are absolute monarchies and

constitutional monarchies. An absolute monarchy is when the monarch has complete control of the government and its people. A constitutional monarchy is when the monarch’s power is limited by laws or the country’s constitution, and representatives and sometimes prime ministers are elected.

King George III ruled England for a whopping 59 years, starting from 1760 until his death in 1820. England was a very powerful nation during this period and greatly affected the age of imperialism. Therefore England had one of the most influential governments in the world for this time. In King George III’s reign, England colonized many places to bring in money and resources to the “motherland”. England was responsible for colonizing the North American colonies and when they rebelled against the British, England lost many lives and a great amount of money. Since England has a monarchy, there was really only one person to blame for this outstanding loss and that was King George III. This brought stress and ridicule to the King. A nickname that he acquired was “Crazy King George”(King George III).

In the monarch system, when the ruler passes away, the closest blood relative is appointed to be king or queen. In 1820, when King George III passed, his successor was his son, known as King George IV. He was monarch from 1820 to 1830. He was 57 when he became king and ruled for 10 years until his death (George IV).

Next up to the throne was King William IV. His rule was from 1830 to 1837. His rule was even shorter than his brother’s. He was the 3rd son King George the III. His cause of death, to end his 7 year reign, was Myocardial infarction, which is when blood flow to a part of your heart is blocked.

Queen Victoria was the successor of King William IV and ruled from 1837 to 1901. Her reign lasted for 63 years and 7 months which is longer than any other British Monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history. Architecture During the end of the 18th century, London had some very unique architectural patterns, ideas, and structures.

There are a few key points that distinguish the style of the time:

• Most structures were centered around a large public square.

• Many houses were narrow townhouses with a height to width ratio of 2:1.

• Distinct mood and color theme for each room.

• Sleeping quarters were located on the 2nd or 3rd floor, with the first floor reserved for entertaining guests.

• Wealthy houses included pillars, curved staircases and often large glass domes in the center of a large “ball room”

Many buildings were created from English “yellow brick” giving buildings a lighter tone than the typical “red brick”.

Gas street lamps, sash windows, and parapet roofs became the norm due to new building codes.

The official title given to the architectural era was “Neo-Palladian” or “Neoclassical” referring to the mixing of the old Italian renaissance architecture with the Victorian and Georgian architecture.

Robert Adam was the most responsible for the influence over the architecture in London; he was a very well know architect. Legal Systems London during the 18th century had no public officials corresponding to either police or district attorneys. Under English law, any Englishman could prosecute any crime.

In some ways, their system for criminal prosecution was similar to our system of civil prosecution. Under both, it is the victim who ordinarily initiates and controls the process by which the offender is brought to justice. There is, however, at least one major difference between the two systems. If the victim of a tort succeeds in winning his case, the tortfeasor is required to pay him damages. If the victim of a crime won his case, the criminal was hanged, transported, or possibly pardoned.

Jurors during this time were also different. Jurors knew that the witnesses expected to share in the reward from conviction-and discounted their testimony accordingly. Weddings Many wedding traditions come from the Victorian Era.
In the 18th century most brides did not wear white, until Queen Victoria wore a whitewedding gown on her wedding day.
Other traditions, such as a wedding cake came from this age as well. During the beginning of the century, the couple would have a “Bride Pie”, which was a sweet bread.
Later, tiered cakes became popular. Legend says, baker’s apprentice in late 18th-century London, fell in love with his boss's daughter. When he asked her to marry him he wanted to impress her with a beautiful cake and his inspiration came from the spire of St Bride’s church in London. Queen Victoria Fashion (Men) Throughout the period, men continued to wear the coats, waistcoats, and breeches. By the 1770s, coats exhibited a tighter, narrower cut, than seen in earlier periods, and were occasionally double-breasted. In shirts sleeves were full, gathered at the wrist and dropped shoulder. In England, clean, white linen shirts were considered important in Men's attire. Low-heeled leather shoes fastened with shoe buckles were worn with silk or woolen stockings. The buckles were either polished metal, usually in silver or with paste stones, although there were other types. Wigs were worn for formal occasions, or the hair was worn long and powdered, brushed back from the forehead and clubbed with a black ribbon. Dance Dance in London mainly began in France and gradually was introduced to The English.
Special dances were created for the entertainment of The King and Queen.
Many upperclassmen in London entertained others of the same class with grand balls, in which people danced for fun(Mosteller).
In one English dance book (John Playford's English Dancing Master) there were instructions for a few dances in which a number of pairs, typically four, began to dance in a square formation(Miller-Cory). In this book there is the first evidence of a country style dancing(Early).
In England, something that was also common among dancers were “callers”. Callers called out the moves of the dance as the people danced so it wouldn’t be as hard to remember the dance. A caller would also be helpful if you didn’t know the dance altogether. A type of dance that flourished in England was Ballroom dancing(Mosteller). Funeral and Burial Practices Most funeral customs and rituals practiced in the 18th century in London were used to protect the living from the dead. Most people believe that closing the eyes of the dead began in the 18th century, because it was believed that it closed a ‘window’ from the living and dead world. Items would be given to the deceased as small favors. Usually, handkerchiefs, gloves, etc would typically be given out. Jewelry also was quite popular. The gifts are dropped off at the deceased’s home. When all the gifts are received, then their body is carried in the coffin to the church. If you die a virgin, your funeral colors would be white instead of black. (Bathrick) Children would also help carry the coffin. If citizens could afford it, they would also take pictures with the deceased as a last token and the photo would be hung up in a drawing room. Some people were very scared of the spirits of the deceased returning, so some people would cut off the deceased’s feet so they couldn’t walk. (Neff) Beating on the grave, funeral bells, firing guns, and yelling chants were methods used to scare off the spirits. Some people also used specific designs of tombstones to protect the deceased. (Powell). Music The music of the 18th century was the base of where music is now. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Sebastian Bach, and George Frideric Handel were the biggest music composers at the time. Today, Mozart’s music is used in a lot of movies, TV shows, commercials, and more! Classical music was the big thing of the century. John Blow’s Ode for New Year’s Day was a big hit for the time. (Slade) The three main types of music you would hear during this time were concertos, operas, and sonatas. (EXTRA) Operas were the main opportunity of entertainment during this time period. An explosion of opera houses came across major European cities. Most of them had dances or short plays. (18th). Today, these operas are now apart of what we call theater. Prisons/Capital Punishment Art Prisons were small, old , badly-run, unpleasant places that made people think twice when committing crimes. Common punishments included sending the offender to a far away colony(such as Australia) to serve out a term in isolated solidute, hard, boring work such as: walking a treadwheel to provide a free source of energy; and death by execution. During the period, there were over 100 public executions per year in London alone! Transportation There were many ways of transportation in London from 1775 to 1875. One of the major ways of travel and transportation was the stage coach. It was a carriage drawn by a horse. There were also large carriages that acted as busses. To The stage coach was soon replaced by a better carriage. The mail carriage was much better than the stage coach. It was faster and more effective than all the other carriages. It could travel at an average of eight to ten miles per hour. They used these to give mail in a very fast amount of time. Also Around this time many tracks and railroads were starting to be built. These trains could travel very fast and far. The railroads and trains became very popular way of transportation. Many people used these to travel to and from work. Also many people used ships to travel around the country. This was an effective way of transportation even though it was a primitive. During the early 1800s more than 200 types of crime could lead to death by execution thus leading to the "Bloody Code."
The most common method of execution was being hanged in the public gallows. Charles Dickens (Febuary 7, 1812- June 9, 1870) is often considered the finest English novelist of the 19th century. His works are part of the culture of that time period. He was an enormously successful author, famous for his heartless-ness and wretched writings. Charles Dickens Economy/Banking The eighteenth century was the beginning of modern day banking in England. It was an exciting era in the economic realm, as it led to the emergence of modern financial institutions. International trade, as well as war with France, played a key role in the development of banks. During this time, many significant events took place, including the advent of the check and banknote, the founding of the Bank of England, and the first instances in British history of inflation and forgery (UMichigan). The Bank of England began in 1694 when King William III asked a wealthy friend and merchant, Mr. Patterson, to underwrite the cost of the ongoing war with France. This favor resulted in the founding of a limited liability, privately owned, joint-stock bank. The Bank of England quickly grew and soon handled all of the government’s securities. Besides acting as the banker for the government, the Bank of England served another important purpose: it released the very first banknotes. These notes were handwritten for an exact amount of money, signed by the cashier of the bank and could be redeemed for gold and silver coins. During the latter half of the eighteenth century, the bank began printing notes with fixed sums (see picture to the right). They were available in denominations from £1 to £1,000 during the eighteenth century (although the smaller bills were not released until very late) (Canadian Content). Human Dissections
Although illegal, human dissection in England during the 18th and 19th century was fairly common, along with resurrection men, who were also called grave robbers or body snatchers. Doctors and colleges in England were using bodies of criminals and the poor to dissect and study. During a time when people believed being dissected after death was even worse than being hanged. The threat of eventual dissection acted as a discouraging thought to crime. People did not want to be dug up, dissected, and have parts of their dead body stolen. The body snatchers would use the good parts of the cadaver and put it on something else to try to create life, like Dr. Frankenstein did to make Frankenstein. Work Cited “Battles of the American Revolution (Simple List).” americanrevolution.org. n.p. n.d. Web. March 19 "History of the Monarchy The Hanoverians George IV." History of the Monarchy The Hanoverians George IV. The Royal Household © Crown Copyright, 2008/2009. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. Chan, Tiffany. "Architecture in London (Week 10)." Architecture in London (Week 10). StudyBlue, 09 Dec. 2012. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Eighteenth-Century European Dress. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. "Banking in Eighteenth Century England." Banking in Eighteenth Century England. University of Michigan, n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. "18th Century Transportation." 18th Century Transportation. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2013. Gee, Catherine. "The History of the Wedding Cake." The Telegraph. N.p., 19 Apr. 2011. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. Women fashion
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