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Kohlberg & Erikson

A brief presentation on the educational and developmental theorists Kohlberg and Erikson

Katrina Holt

on 12 September 2012

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Transcript of Kohlberg & Erikson

Background Kohlberg and Erikson Identify vs Role Confusion Background
Born in Bronxville, NY 1927 (Pence)
Attended the Andover Academy in Massachusetts (Pence)
Went to help the Israeli Cause and helped smuggle Israelis into Palestine
1948-enrolled in the University of Chicago and took only one year to graduate (Pence)
Became interested in Piaget and working with children
His interviews became his doctoral dissertation Preconventional Morality
Obedience and Punishment
•Obeying rules leads to no punishment
Individualism and Exchange
•Points of view based on individual and individual needs
(Cherry) Conventional Morality
Interpersonal Relationships
•“Living up to social expectations”(Cherry)
Maintaining Social Order
•“doing one’s duty and respecting authority” (Cherry)
Postconventional Morality
Social Contract and Individual Rights
•“Begin to account for the differing values,
opinions and belief of other people” (Cherry)
Universal Principles
•Abstract reasoning and ethical principles
•“Internal principles of justice” (Cherry) How it relates
Middle School level students have most likely established the Obedience and Punishment to their lives. Students might have moved on the Individualism and Exchange, Interpersonal Relationships and Maintaining Social Order.
Obedience and Punishment
Individualism and Exchange
Students will act in according to the benefit of the individual
Interpersonal Relationships
Begin to fit into certain groups
Maintaining Social Order
Some students respect authority Erikson Kohlberg Erikson 1.) Infancy: Birth - 18 Mons. 2.) Toodler: 18 mons. - 3 years 3.) Preschooler: 3 - 5 years 4.) School Age: 5 - 12 years Erikson Born: Frankfurt am Main, Germany 1902 (nndb) Forced to move to U.S.A. after the rise Nazi power (nndb) Created the theory on phsychosocial development (nndb) Biggest influence was the absence of his father,
and being forced to accept a new identity "During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc" (simplypsychology). This is the stage where a child will begin to transition into who they will be as an adult. At this time the child begins to explore different possibilities and begin to form their own identity based on the outcome of their exploration (sp) Who am I? Who am I? Who am I? Who am I? Who am I? Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) Intimacy: If successful the relationship will lead to a sense of care and safety Isolation: By avoiding relationships, intimacy, and commitments can lead to isolation, loneliness, and depression. Time in a persons life that longs for intimate relationships filled with commitment. Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood) (SP) By this time the individual has already established a career and developed relationships, at this stage the individual contemplates what kind of impact they would have to society and the next generation Generativity: Belief and participating in ways to better the community. Can be achieved through raising children, being productive, and having a positive impact on the community. Stagnation: The individual will feel unproductive, and in turn will be unproductive. (SP) Ego Integrity vs. Despair (old age) At this point the individual will look back at their past and evaluate their accomplishments, through this they either develop integrity or despair. Integrity: The individual is able to develop a sense of integrity by looking back on their successful life and the positive impact they had. Despair: The individual sees their "life as unproductive and feel guilt about [their] pasts, or feel that [they] did not accomplish [their] life goals, [they] become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness." (SP) When Erikson covers the pychosocial stages ( these are the stages that show the possible positive and negative responses that a person might have depending on an age group) he covers the middle grades in two stages.

Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority (6 - 12 years) which primary covers how a child will either develop industry or inferiority personality.

Identity vs. Role Confusion (13 - 18 years)
Even though the age is 13-18 we believe that this still applies to middle schools because even at this stage they still have identity issues. Erikson says that this is where students will develop 2 aspects of their adult life; sexual & occupational. Industry - ex. If a student tries really hard and does well on a project and the teacher recognizes the job well done and compliments the student's job well done... the student then will be motivated to do well on all projects.
Inferiority - ex. If a student tries really hard and does not do very well on a project and the teacher goes nuts and goes on about how terrible it is, the student will be negatively motivated to believe that he/she is incapable of doing a good job. Middle School In the beginning stage of development, the parents of a child play a major role. The way they nurture their child by physical and visual contact will help the child develop "trust, confidence and security" if given correctly. At this stage, the child has to build self-esteem. This is when the child learns between right and wrong. In this stage, children experience the world around them. They begin to use their imagination and copy adults in their life. This is the stage where children ask the question "WHY??!" Bewteen the ages of 6 and 12, children will begin school and learn "to cope with new social and academic demands".
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