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All aspects of dream, physical and neurological

Tom Wiss

on 11 October 2013

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Transcript of Dreams

They are often violent or sexual in nature
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
R.E.M. Sleep
Sleep Cycles
Have you ever woken up in the middle of the night and felt wide awake and well rested? You probably woke up right after R.E.M. sleep when brain activity is at a level almost equal to being awake.
Autonomic Nervous System
Sleep Atonia occurs between being awake and falling asleep and is characterized by being paralyzed while being awake.
However the reverse can also happen where one is asleep and dreaming but the muscles are not paralyzed and the body begins acting out the dream.
Babies and children get more R.E.M. sleep than adults, the amount decreases as we age. (5)
Its basically a mix between R.E.M. sleep and being awake, in that you are conscious but paralyzed
This can become increasingly worse to the point that it could cause harm to the person or possibly the spouse if present.
The cyclic pattern repeats about every 90 minutes
Sleep cycles occur in a repeating pattern ranging between deep sleep with lower brain activity to increased brain activity when R.E.M. sleep takes place. (1)
The muscles of the body are paralyzed during R.E.M. sleep to keep us from doing what we are dreaming. (5)
Along with eye movement and paralysis of muscles, R.E.M. sleep includes an increase in activity in the Autonomic Nervous System via the sympathetic nervous system (3)
Likewise if you have ever woken up feeling exhausted even after getting plenty of sleep you possibly woke up during a deeper stage of sleep.
The Timing of Sleep Cycles
Other animals experience noticeable sleep cycles including R.E.M. sleep and even signs of dreams.
If R.E.M. sleep is cut short one night, one will experience more the following night to make up for it. (5)
Not surprising then that the cycle of R.E.M. sleep corresponds to a cycle of penile erections while sleeping. (3)
Brain Activity
Dreams as Thoughts
Dreams as Interpreted Brain Activity
Known as the cognitive approach
This theory states that the
same thinking
that goes on while we are awake
causes us to dream (Wade 161)
Calvin Hall (1909-1985)’s cognitive theory of dreaming one of the first scientific theories for dream interpretation (2)
Calvin Hall and his Cognitive Theory of Dreaming
There are five main conceptions that Hall found within dreams
Conception of self
Conceptions of other people
Conceptions of the world
Conceptions of problems and conflicts
Conceptions of impulses, prohibitions, and penalties (2)
Along with Robert Van de Castle, they created the Hall-Van de Castle Scales, which scored dreams along 16 empirical scales (2)
This graph shows one relationship that Hall and Van de Castle studied. They found that as you get older and mature, your dream content changes (2)
David Foulkes - another dream researcher who emphasized the cognitive processes in dreaming (5)
the first model that tried to account for the generation of mental activity during sleep (5)
His model consist of three main
cognitive processes:
Mnemonic activation
(mnemonic = information storage)
Conscious Organization
Known as the activation-synthesis theory it’s a physiological or biological approach to dreaming (6)
First proposed by psychiatrist J. Allan Hobson (6)
A newer version of this theory by Hobson is called AIM
It has been shown that parts of the cerebral cortex involved in
perceptual and cognitive processing while an individual is awake are
also highly active during dreaming, proving that cognitive processes
do occur while dreaming (6)
Foulke’s model can be connected to Hobson’s AIM model as well (5)
The first step of both of these involve activation and support each other (5)

Unfortunately the parts of the brain corresponding to the second and third steps of Foulke’s model have either not been researched enough yet or actually show low functioning during sleep (5)
Why does any of this matter?
Some research has found that information studied right before going to sleep is better retained (3)
(1) Google Image Result for http://www.faculty.umb.edu/gary_zabel/Courses/Phil%2520281/Philosophy%2520of%2520Magic/Paleolithic%2520Art/New%2520Folder%2520(2)/hobson08.jpg. (n.d.). Google. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=593&tbm=isch&tbnid=ZzwxY6eaCe75KM:&imgrefurl=http://www.faculty.umb.edu/gary_zabel/Courses/Phil%2520281/Philosophy%2520of%2520Magic/My%2520Documents/Neuroscience%2520of%2520Altered%2520States%2520b.htm&

  (2) Hurd, R. (2009, December 3). Calvin hall and the cognitive theory of dreaming. Retrieved from http://dreamstudies.org/2009/12/03/calvin-hall-cognitive-theory-of-dreaming/

 (3) If you sleep after you study, you'll remember more. (n.d.). Good. Retrieved October 12, 2008, from www.good.is/posts/if-you-sleep-after-you-study-you-ll-remember-more

(4)  Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain Interactive Lecture. (n.d.). Prentice Hall. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from wps.prenhall.com/hss_wade_mru_2/12/3215/823168.cw/index.html

 (5) Occhionero, M. (2004). Mental processes and the brain during dreams. Dreaming, 14 (1), 54-64. doi:10.1037/1053-0797.14.1.54

  (6) Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2012). Invitation to psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
These two approaches (cognitive and biological) have been one of the largest conflicts in dream research, but recently some research has tried to combine the two
A study done by Delphine Oudiette et al. suggests that dreaming does not occur exclusively during R.E.M. sleep (2)
The researchers utilized a drug called clomipramine 50mg to suppress R.E.M. sleep and then interviewed participants about the dreams could remember having (if any at all). (2)
"At 9 PM on the experimental nights, subjects were given clomipramine (50 mg) or placebo in a double blind crossover design. We chose clomipramine for its important suppressant effect on REM sleep." (2)
If dreams are about fulfilling wishes, then why would we dream about things we don't like?
We dream about things we don't like because of our fears. Even though the dream is a fictional illusion, the fear is very real. And also because we have a desire to create an unreal world where we can escape to the life we wish we had. (4) This generates nightmares derived from the unknown. “the illusion of satisfaction is invaded by the illusion of terror” (1)
Manifest Content- aspects of a dream that we consciously experience during sleep and are more likely to remember
What we remember
Dreams as Unconscious Wishes
Problem-Focused Approach states that dreams use symbols and metaphors to convey the problem, not disguise it
Death of Someone you Care About
Common Dreams
Fire-destruction, passion, transformation, temper, and out-of-control anger
Dreams come from memories.
Dreams are unconscious wishes.
Act as a way to sort through thoughts.
Dreams attempt to find solutions to problems.
"Those Frightening Visions During Sleep"
What are they?
We remember certain things based on what stage of sleep we are in.
Latent (Hidden) Content- dreams that are not remembered but instead are disguised as random but symbolic images
Reflects ongoing conscious preoccupations of your waking life
Dream about problems to think
of ways to resolve them (3)
Bad dreams causing feelings of terror, fear & distress
Nightmares normally occur during the latter of the night.
Every night we become delusional so our anxiety won’t wake us up (4)
“Nighttime fantasies provide insight into our desires, motives, and conflicts which we are unaware of” (5)
Thoughts and objects are symbolic images used in your dreams to represent your desires(4)
If someone is dreaming of a tree, that could represent a money tree, especially if the dreamer is having financial difficulties. (3)
Their results showed that people do dream, and can recall dreams, during non-R.E.M. sleep. (2)
Dreams are interpreted brain activity
Fun Fact! Marijuana also suppresses R.E.M. sleep and has been suggested as a treatment for post traumatic stress disorder patients.
The brain wave patterns that correspond to each sleep stage are shown here. (4)
Works Cited

1)Crick, Francis, and Graeme Mitchison. "The Function of Dream Sleep." Nature 304.5922 (1983): 111-14. Print.

2)Oudiette, Delphine, Marie-Jose Dealberto, Ginevra Uguccioni, Jean-Louis Golmard, Milagros Merino-Andreu, Mehdi Tafti, Lucile Garma, Sophie Schwartz, and Isabelle Arnulf. "Dreaming without REM Sleep." Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2012): 1129-140. Print.

3)Schulz, Hartmut, and Piero Salzarulo. "Forerunners of REM Sleep." Sleep Medicine Reviews(2011): n. pag. Print.

4)Wade, Carole, and Carol Tavris. Invitation To Psycology. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2012. Print.

5)Williams, Daniel. "While You Were Sleeping." Time. Time, 05 Apr. 2007. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1606872,00.html?artId=1606872?contType=article?chn=arts>.
Adult humans usually spend between 1.5 and 2 hours in REM sleep each night. (1)
Snakes-penis, sexually overpowered, temptation, and danger
Sniper-hidden aggression
Cave-search/discovery of unconscious mind and self discovery
Car-driving towards your goals, identity, and dependence
Reflects ongoing conscious preoccupations of your waking life. (2)
Problem-Focused Approach states that dreams use symbols and metaphors to convey the problem, not disguise it (3)
Problems could include relationships, work, finances, sex, and health. (7)
The factors that can affect the way you are dreaming include traumatic experiences, a person's religious views, and cultural influences. (6)
Occur during REM Sleep
Repeatedly waking up
Remembering vivid frightening dreams
Alert & instantly aware upon awakening
Impairment of occupational and social functioning
Anxiety & Stress
Illness with a fever
Death of family or friend
Alcohol and drugs
Sleep Apnea
Sleep Disorders
Eating Before bed
Eating before bed
Anxiety & Stress precede nightmares 60% of the time
Recurring Nightmares
Nightmare Disorder
Affected normal functions
Nightmare Disorder
Frequent nightmares
Most times with a recurring theme
inked to complex partial seizures
Can be caused by a certain stressor
In children
50% of children between age 3 & 6
20% of children between age 6 &12
In adults
2% - 6% of the American population experiences nightmares once a week
Lucid Dreaming
A dream in which you know you are dreaming (3)

It typically happens when a person is mid-dream and something unrealistic happens which makes them question if it is real or not.
Lucid dreaming was first used by Buddhists as a spiritual journey and as a form of yoga (3)

Did not come into scientific study until 1968 when it was studied in Celia Green’s Lucid Dreaming: The Paradox of Consciousness During Sleep (3)
While lucid dreaming people may have:
voluntary eye movement
false awakening
sleep paralysis
out of body experience (3)
Associated Phenomena
Prevent nightmares
Can be used as a form of meditation or yoga (3)
Applications of Lucid Dreaming
Neurobiological model by J. Allan Hobson states the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is deactivated during REM sleep (2)
This part of the brain is associated with working memory (2)
When this part of the brain is activated a person becomes aware they are dreaming (2)
How the brain identifies it is dreaming
Wake Initiated (1)
-Rolling in from a state of consciousness to falling asleep with the same mental thought
-Easier to do if you only have 3-7 hours of sleep the night before
Dream Initiated (1)
-Dreamer is mid-dream and realizes that they are in fact dreaming
How Lucid Dreams Are Initiated
Wishes & Problems
Night Terrors
Much more dramatic than a nightmare.
Occur during deep
non-REM sleep.
Sudden reaction of fear that occurs during transitions between sleep phases.
Limit Caffeine
Limit Alcohol
Fitness Routine
Regular Sleep Schedule
Listen to your body
Being Naked in front of Strangers:
Feeling of shame or embarrassment and desire to hide yourself from their judgment
If the dreamer does feel pain then it is a wish that the person does in fact die but not at the present time
If the dreamer does not grieve from the loss then it is a desire to see that person because they haven’t in a while
My Dream:
I am in a car accident with my family and I am the only one that survives
Class Exercise:
Lets hear some of your interpretations of your own dreams!
What interesting things did you discover about your dreams?
Did anyone find any disguised meanings in their dreams?
Could be dreaming about death if someone is dying, has recently died, or you view life as if you were "living to die"
It could be a wish that someone who is ill will die as a way to relieve them of their pain.
1. McNamara, Patrick. Nightmares: The Science and Solution of Those Frightening Visions during Sleep. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2008. Print.

2. NIH, . "Nightmares." Psychology Today . Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/nightmares>.

3. MedlinePlus. National Institute of Health, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003209.htm>.
1-Weinschenk, Susan, and Llana Simons. "Why Do We Dream? | Psychology Today." The Literary Mind: Life, literature, and politics. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. <http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-literary-mind/200911/why-do-we-dream>.

2-Pollock, George H. (Ed); Ross, John Munder (Ed), (1988). The Oedipus papers.Classics in psychoanalysis, Monograph 6., (pp. 3-7). Madison, CT, US: International Universities Press, Inc, xix, 532 pp.

3-"Interpretation of dreams, Sigmund Freud." Theory of Dreams According to Freud. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2012. <http://www.smithwebdesign.com/worldofdreams/theory.html>.

4-Mackie, Greg. "Are dreams just wish fulfillment?." Circle of Atonement: Dedicated to A Course in Miracles. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2012. <http://www.circleofa.org/qanda/WishFulfillment.php>.

5-Jung, C. G., Lorenz Jung, and Maria Grass. Children's dreams: notes from the seminar given in 1936-1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. Print.

6-Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. 1953. Reprint. London: The Hogarth Press Limited, 1953. Print.

7-Wade, Carole, and Carol Tavris. "Body Rhythms and Mental States." Invitation to Psychology. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2012. 159-162. Print.
Works Cited:
(1)LaBerge, S. (1985) Lucid Dreaming. New York City, NY: Ballantine Books.

(2)Hurd, R. (2010, January 7). Allan Hobson and the Neuroscience of Dreaming. In Dream Studies. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://dreamstudies.org/2010/01/07/neuroscience-of-dreams/

(3)What is Lucid Dreaming? (n.d.). In Dream Views. Retrieved September 30, 2012, from http://www.dreamviews.com/content/what-lucid-dreaming-16/
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