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Transcript of Russian Revolution
Resist Change Crisis At Home & Abroad March Revolution To Road Revolution Industrialization Alexander III Nicholas I Alexander II Nicholas II Autocratic
Used censorship & secret police
Sent prisoners to Siberia
Made Russian the offical lagnuage and the Orthodoz Church the offical religion
Utilized Pogroms (organized violence against Jews) Government sought foreign investment & raised taxes
Focused on production of steel
Constructed the Tans-Siberian Railway
Factories doubled between 1863 & 1900 Poor working conditions
Child Labor Revolutionaries Followed views of Karl Marx
Industrial class (proletariat) would overthrow the czar Mensheviks Bolsheviks Moderates
Broad base of support Radicals
Small, committed base Lenin Leader of Bolsheviks
Brother was hanged for plotting to kill the czar
Planned to overthrow the czar
"Father of the Revolution"
Fled to western Europe to escape arrest by the czar Russo-Japanese War Competed for control of Korea and Manchuria
Russia broke series of peace agreements
Japan retaliated by attacking Bloody Sunday January 22, 1905
Workers led by priests marched to the Winter Palace in hopes of improving poor working conditions
Gaurds opened fire killing & wounding 1,000
Provoked a wave of strikes and violence
October Manifesto: Nicholas promised more freedom, including the creation of the Duma (which was absolved 10 weeks later) WWI Russia was unprepared to handle the military and economic costs
Within one year, over 4 million Russian soldiers were killed
Nicholas II moved his headquarters to the war front
Czarina Alexandra, who was left in charge, ignored the chief advisers and followed the advice of Rasputin Rasputin "holy man" who claimed to have magical healing powers
Nicholas and Alexandra's son, Alexis, suffered from hemophilia
He opposed reform efforts and appointed his friends to powerful positions
Nobles attempted to assassinate 6 min Petrograd Women textile workers led a strike
Sparked riots over shortages of bread and fuel
Soldiers soon joined the protesters Nicholas II abdicated throne and was later executed
Duma established a provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky. He chose to keep Russia in WWI.
Socialist revolutionaries, competing for power, formed Soviets (local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers) The Bolshevik Revolution Lenin ordered that all farmland be distributed among the peasants
Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (terms upset many Russians) Lenin returned to Russia with the help of Germany
Bolshevik Red Guards, armed factory workers, stormed the Winter Palace and took control of the Provisional Government Civil War White Army: opponents who wanted the czar back, wanted democracy instituted, or socialists who opposed Lenin's style
Supported by Western nations
Red Army: Bolshevik armed forces
Led by Leon Trotsky Peace, Land, Bread 14 Million died during the Civil War and the famine that followed New Economic Policy Small scale version of capitalism
Allowed peasants to sell their surplus crops instead of turning them over to the government
Government controlled major industries, banks, and means of communication
Allowed for some private factories and businesses Nationalism Threatening Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
USSR Communists Bolsheviks renamed Alexander III
Father of the Revolution
Rasputin Czarina Alexandra
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Peace, Land, Bread 10 min Childhood Context 10 min Power Five Year Plans collective farms
Five Year Plans
League of Militant Godless
Totalitarianism Marx Lenin History was the story of class struggle capitalism vs. the proletariat AND the peasants Spontaneous revolution would occur when the proletariat's numbers would become so great and their condition so poor Proletariat and the peasants were not capable of leading a revolution so they needed the guidance of professional revolutionaries Revolution would end with a "dictatorship of the proletariat" Revolution would end only with the guidance of a single party administration Red = revolutionary Hammer & Sickle = Union of workers and peasants Red Star = Rule of the Communist Party 1923 R.I.P.
Lenin Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin Nikolai Bukharin Most radical Bolshevik leader
Believed in actively spreading the revolution abroad Supported by moderates
Favored continuing the NEP to secure domestic growth "Socialism in One Country"
Stabilize socialism within USSR 1924