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Ghana, Mali, Songhai 2

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Cindy Ko

on 3 May 2011

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Transcript of Ghana, Mali, Songhai 2

African Kingdoms: Ghana


Songhai GHANA GHANA is a term meaning "Warrior King" Language? - Arabic Where?
- Located between the Niger River and the Sengal River
-Modern Day Mauritania and Mali The people of Ghana are called Soninkes. The kings of Ghana controlled the salt and gold trade between North and West Africa. The empire had a large of army and cavalry and archers to defend its trade routes. The capital of Ghana, was the most powerful trading center in West Africa from 800 to 1050 BCE. They followed the matrilineal system. West African Trade:
They produced Kola nuts, palm oil, copper, and gold to send north to the Berbers. They traded for salt. 1 pound of salt = 1 pound of gold. Decline of Ghana:
-In 1203, rulers of the Sosso kingdom captured Ghana.
-In 1235, Ghana conquered by the Mali empire. Ghana relies on gold and salt trade! Ghana Today... MALI Emperor Sundiati directed his people to agriculture and trade. Their official language of ancient Mali was Mandinkan. The capital of Mali was Niomi. They made great contributions to
mining, weaving, and architecture. Some of their primary agriculture crops were
onions, yams, rice, millet, cotton, and beans. Mali expanded trade across all of the sahara,
from Cairo to Tunis,
and west to the Berbers of Marakech.
Trade grew to three times the size of Ghana. The city of Timbuktu was originally settled
by Berbers in 11th century. Timbuktu was
an important trading center between western
and northern Africa Natural Resources:
-Controlled the gold mines of Ghana
-New gold mines were discovered
-Controlled salt and copper mines. Who is Mansa Musa? -Greatest ruler of Mali
Mansa means emperor or king. -In 1324, he made a piligrimage to Mecca with up to 50,000 people He is a devout Muslim. His wealth was known throughout the European and Muslim worlds. After he died, Mali's power began to decline. Mali depends on the Gold and Salt trade too! In 1463, the small kingdom of Songhai, led by Prince Sunni Ali, conquered the Mali Empire. Songhai Songhai is a monarchy founded by Sonni Ali Songhai rule is based on a combination
of Shariya and Animist traditions.
Shariya= Muslim Law Songhai is famous for its progress in education, a uniform system in weights and measures, and improvements in banking and credits. Songhai kings invest their money on
infrastructure and arts. They benefit from gold /salt trade.
Also from Tax trade & development. European merchants come looking for slaves=
Birth of Slave Trade. Most of them are muslims and
followed Shariya and Halchic traditions Their social structure was clan based.
Their classes were in pyramid form They also advanced in art & culture! Sonni Ali 1st great emperor of Songhai, he repelled attacks from the Mossi,
defended Songhai from other countries and expanded the empire. Songhai benefits from the gold & salt trade... Songhai... What's common between
all three empires? Geography! Religion! Monarchy Government Gold and Salt Trade!!!!!!! + THE END! By: Cindy Ko
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