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Danielle St.Pierre

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of OCD

OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER Abnormal Disorders Danielle St.Pierre Obsessive compulsive disorder, commonly known as OCD, is an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, or behaviors (obsessions) that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions). People who have OCD carry out their compulsions to prevent or reduce anxiety related to their obsessions. People may make up rules or rituals to follow that help control the anxiety they feel when having obsessive thoughts. Not performing the obsessive rituals causes further anxiety. COMMON SYMPTOMS DEFINITION OF DISORDER COMPULSIVE SYMPTOMS COMPULSIONS TYPICALLY HAVE THEMES, SUCH AS:
Washing and cleaning
Hand washing until your skin becomes raw
Opening and closing a door a certain number of times before entering or leaving a room
Checking / Demanding reassurance
Checking the stove repeatedly to make sure it's off
Performing the same action repeatedly
Turning on and off lights before you leave or enter a room
Arranging your canned goods to face the same way OBSESSIVE SYMPTOMS OBSESSIONS ALSO HAVE THEMES, SUCH AS:
Fear of contamination or dirt
Fear of being contaminated by shaking hands or by touching objects others have touched
Having things orderly and symmetrical
Intense stress when objects aren't orderly or facing the right way
Aggressive or horrific impulses
Impulses to shout obscenities in inappropriate situations
Sexual images or thoughts Symptoms of OCD usually begin gradually and tend to vary in severity throughout your life. Symptoms generally worsen during times when you're experiencing more stress. STATISTICS ABOUT OCD It is estimated that approximately 2.3% of the population between ages 18- 54 suffer from OCD
1 in 40 Americans currently suffers some from OCD symptoms
The average age for the onset for actual OCD symptoms is 19, a third to half of all people who suffer from OCD began noticing obsessive traits during childhood
There is no discrimination as to who has OCD; it is found in all ethnic groups and both men and women are equally struck by the disorder.
Many people suffer from OCD, but many also hide their symptoms. Surveys estimate that less than 10 % of those suffering are currently in treatment. CAUSES OF OCD BIOLOGICAL THEORIES It has been suggested that if you have OCD, your brain has difficulty turning off or ignoring impulses from the networks connected by this circuit. This ultimately causes repetitive compulsions, or uncontrollable obsessions. Biological causes of OCD focus on the abnormal functioning of the cortico-striatal circuit of the brain. This circuit connects areas of the brain that control routine behavior; such as organization, planning, and personal grooming. When this circuit is activated, impulses are brought to your attention and cause you to perform a particular behavior that appropriately addresses the impulse. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THEORIES According to cognitive-behavioral, if you are vulnerable to OCD you are unable to ignore bizarre or unexpected thoughts throughout the day. In addition, you may feel that you should be able to control these thoughts and that these thoughts are dangerous. Because these thoughts are labeled as dangerous, you remain watchful of them. Constantly noticing these thoughts further reinforces or “proves” the dangerousness of these thoughts. This sets up a vicious cycle where you become trapped monitoring these dangerous thoughts. Being trapped in this cycle can make it impossible to focus on anything else besides the distressing thoughts and an obsession is created. DSM CLASSIFICATION

Obsessions as defined by (1), (2), (3), and (4):

(1) recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images are experienced at some time during the disturbance that cause anxiety or distress
(2) the thoughts, impulses, or images are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems
(3) the person attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, impulses, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action
(4) the person recognizes that the obsessional thoughts, impulses, or images are a product of their own mind (not imposed from without as in thought insertion)

Compulsions as defined by (1) and (2):

(1) repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly
(2) the behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts either are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent or are clearly excessive A. Either obsessions or compulsions: B. The person has recognized that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable.

C. The obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress, are time consuming, or significantly interfere with the person’s normal routine, occupational functioning, or usual social activities or relationships.

D. Another disorder is present, the content of the obsessions or compulsions is not restricted to
(Eating Disorder, Trichotillomania, Substance Use Disorder, Hypochondriasis).

E. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. TREATMENTS Obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment can be difficult, and treatment may not result in a cure. You may need treatment for the rest of your life PSYCHOTHERAPY MEDICATIONS Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) -retraining your thought patterns and routines so that compulsive behaviors are no longer necessary. Antidepressants are often used first and are helpful towards OCD because they help increase levels of serotonin, which may be lacking when you have OCD. Clomipramine (Anafranil)
Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
Fluoxetine (Prozac)
Paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva)
Sertraline (Zoloft) Other psychiatric medications on the market also may be used to treat OCD off-label; not specifically prescribed. OBSESSIVE SYMPTOMS LEAD TO COMPULSIVE SYMPTOMS WORK CITED RESEARCH ARTICLE Psychometric Analysis of Racial Differences on the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). MOIC was used to discover the frequency and severity of OCD in a smaple of university undergraduates. African American scored significantly higher on the MOIC scale than Whites
White students with high MOIC scores were two times more likely the African American students to meet the diagnostic criteria for OCD
Low scoring African Americans had the same probability as high scoring African American to meet OCD criteria MOIC TEST DOES NOT REFLECT OCD PATHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS IN AFRICAN AMERICANS http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001926/ http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/obsessive-compulsive-disorder http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/DS00189 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/DS00189/DSECTION=symptoms http:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=_wEU-165NRY http:/www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rn1OYlYzgm8
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