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Transcript of ancient India
Architecture of Homes
The following information of ancient Indian architecture is based on two main or prime cities in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The Indus valley cities were one of the first cities ever to have come into existence and formed the basis of civilzation. The same planning for these two cities appeared to be the same without any changes at all the rest of the sites.
Houses were one or two stories high, made of baked brick, with flat roofs, and were just about identical. Each was built around a courtyard with windows overlooking the courtyard. The outside walls had no windows. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom. Clay pipes led from the bathrooms to sewers located under the streets. These sewers drained into nearly rivers and streams.
Ancient Indians were known for their intelligence, innovativeness and enterprise. In the field of Civil engineering, Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine and Metallurgy, the contribution of ancient Indians is unique and unparalleled. The concept of Town Planning was their innovation. They laid down their town on a gridiron plan with streets running at right angles to each other. There was an extensive drainage system, which collected the sewage from each house. Another remarkable innovation was the technology of waterproofing. The great bath at Mohenjodaro is a marvel of water proofing engineering skill. To ensure that the bath was water tight, the floor was paved with bricks cemented with gypsum mortar. Similarly, the wall of the pool was coated with bitumen. Another innovation of them was the designing of the corbelled arch, which was used for underground drainage. Well digging technology was another of their contribution, as the earliest wells in the world are to be found in the towns of the Saraswathi-Sindhu civilization.
Ancient indian caste system-In India a caste system or social classes were created to separate the possible reincarnations of the hindu religion. The 5 social classes are….
-The Brahmins are the priests the highest on the list next to the king and queen.
-The Kshatriyas are the warriors second on the list.
-The Vaisyas are the merchants and minor officials.
-The Sudras are the farmers or unskilled workers.
-The Pariah are the untouchables
Those are the 5 social classes of india.
Day 1-My name is Charles Carson, I have been sent on a excavation trip to the ancient Indus river valley civilization in India, We have not yet found anything but we are getting closer to finding what we're looking for, witch is some artifacts that tells up about how the Indus river valley civilization lived.
Day 2-We have found 3 pieces of what look like a decorative bowl, but its not a complete bowl. My team and i hope we can find he rest of the bowl,
Day 3-We haven't found the rest of the bowl but we did find what looks like a wheel and a frame, I think i could be off of a wheel barrel, if so it shouldn't be hard finding the rest of the wheel barrel.
Day 4- We found the rest of the bowl but we didn't find any thing else. When we get back to the lab we'll glue the pieces together to under stand how the bowls were designed.
Day 5-We have found the rest of the wheel barrel today and our excavation company is sending us back to the U.S and we're leaving tomorrow morning.
Day 6-We have just arrived home and we are ensembled the artifacts. This trip was very productive in the fact that we learned alot about ancient India.
Today 3 archelogists have uncovered 2 ancient Indian artifacts. These artifacts are thousands of years old and will be deilvered to a museum in Washington D.C. The names of these three archelogists are Matthew Bodnark , Charles Carson, and David Hoffman. After 6 long and hard days, they dug out the hard rock and uncovered the artifacts. The artifacts were a Decorated Pot and a wheel barrow made of stone. The excavators soon returned home to examine the artifacts and make sure their hypothesis were correct.
The most popular religion in ancient India was Hinduism and can be traced back to the Vedic period, 6500 BC-1000 AD. Hinduism is thought to be the oldest religion in the history of human civilization. Hinduism is a polytheistic belief and promotes vegetarianism and human divinity. It is a work-base religion where a person gradually gets closer to spiritual freedom over many lifetimes.
Buddhism, known in ancient India as Buddha Dharma, originated in northern India around the 6th century BC. Buddha was born in 560 BC and the religion he founded believes you can attain nirvana (rebirth) through non-attachment of materials things or ways of life.
Jainism is a religion that does not believe in a god and is said to originate in India during the 6th century BC. It came into being at around the same time as Buddhism. Jainism emphasizes nonviolance and the reincarnation of saints. The universe is eternal, uncreated and attached to everything that has a soul.
Christianity in India is the 3rd largest religion and a part of Indian life since 52 AD and was spread to India with St. Thomas the Apostle in Kerala. Salvation is based on faith in the salvation offered through Jesus Christ, through God alone. It is not based on works, or particular acts of the worshipper. It is this belief in grace that sets it apart from other world religions.
Judaism first occurred around 1300 BC in Mesopotamia in the area of Ur. It is not known specifically when Judaism began in India but the earliest group of Jews in India arrived on the west coast of India sometime in the 2nd century BC. The religion is based on no human founder, the bond between man and God always existed. Judaism deals with interpersonal relationships and the character of God.
The Muslim religion arrived through the trade route in the south of India, where it was on good terms with other religions. In the north, it came mainly through was as conquerors brought it with them. Islam is a monotheistic religion claming to be the true extension of the Old Testament faith. Christian New Testament figures, such as Jesus and John the Baptist, are regarded as prophets; Muhammed is considered the last and greatest prophet. Islam means surrender, or submission, to the will of Allah.
Sikhism is basically a combination of Islamic and Hindu beliefs. It is significant in that it offered an alternative view of the Creator, insisting that all gods are actually on god worshipped under different names in more or less complete forms. Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak in the early 16th century.
Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic faith that describes a constant struggle between the god of light and a dark force. It is the one most like Christianity. It was founded in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster and brought to India in 717 AD. Only about 120,000 Parsis (those who follow Zoroastrianism) live in India today.
Ancient Indian Architecture was highly sophisticated and technologically advanced.
The planning of the cities was done brilliantly.
There were strong outer walls for defense.
There were planned streets to allow for smooth flow of traffic.
Streets had smoothly rounded corners so carts could turn easily.
Cities were divided into 12 major blocks and laid out in perfect grid patterns.
The basic unit of city planning was the individual household.
There was a high priority to hygiene and sanitation.
The cities had the world's first urban sanitation systems.
The houses were protected from noise, odors, and thieves.
Each home had its own private drinking well and drainage facilities.
Individual homes obtained water from wells.
Each home had a room set aside for bathing.
There may have been a public bath.
Waste water was directed to covered drains which lined the major streets.
Houses opened only to inner courtyards with windows overlooking the courtyard.
The outside walls had no windows.
The homes were one or two stories high with flat roofs.
The homes were all similar and made of baked brick.
May have had plumbing to bring water into homes