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Japanese

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Jeni Tran

on 6 November 2013

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Transcript of Japanese

Japanese
Shinto and Buddhism
.
Language
.
Introduction
Japan is located in the North Pacific
Majority of the people are of Japanese descent
The official language of Japan is Japanese
In Japanese culture, religion does not play a major role in the lives of the people but the two religions in Japan are Shinto and Buddhism
Religion
Most Japanese people do not have one single belief in religion. Rather, they incorporate other various types of religion such as
Shinto
Buddhism
Christianity
Islam
Hinduism
Shinto and Buddhism are Japan’s two major religions.

.
.
Languages
The next topic that I’ll be discussing is languages spoken in Japan.
Shinto
Shinto is an old Japanese culture
“Shinto Gods” are called kami
The purpose of most Shinto’s rituals is to keep evil spirits away, this is achieved with purification
For this religion, they don’t believe in absolute right or wrong and they acknowledge that not everyone is perfect
Buddhism
Buddhism was welcomed in the 6th century as Japan's new state religion
Buddhism addresses itself to all people despite of race, nationality, sexuality, or gender
It teaches practical methods which enable people to realize and use its teachings in order to transform their experience, to be fully responsible for their lives
.
Holidays
New Year in Japan
The date of New Years is January first this is based on the Chinese lunar calendar.
Some customs they have during the new year in Japan is making rice cakes (Mochi)
On Midnight on the 31st of December Buddhist temples in Japan ring their bells 108 times this is called joyanokane.
this symbolizes 108 sins they have in their belief this is supposed to get rid of their 108 desires. They believe that ringing the bell 108 times can get rid of the sins they committed the past year.
Once the bells are rung they go on and celebrate their new year.


Coming of Age day
Coming of age day is on the second Monday of January.
This day is for all 20 year olds to congratulate them and help them realize that they are now adults and to celebrate their adult hood.
Coming of age day has been celebrated since 714 A.D the coming of age ceremony has many government officials speaking on be.
Woman celebrate this holiday by wearing their cultural clothing including furisodes known as a kimono Men also wear their cultural clothing but now in the modern times you’ll see them mostly in suit and ties.
Foundation day
Foundation day is a national Japanese holiday.
This holiday is to remind the Japanese to love the nation and to love the founders.
In 1873 the Japanese calendar was changed from their lunar calendar to the Gregorian calendar and this day was made by the emperor Jinmu.
After the 2nd world war this holiday was abolished and was brought back in 1966 making it and calling it the Foundation Day.
Vernal Equinox Day
Vernal Equinox Day is on the Northward Equinox.
The day isn't determined until February from the last year.
Vernal Equinox Day is either on the 21st or 20th of March due to the stars.
The days are different for different time zones

Showa Day
Showa Day is a day of remembrance
They remember how hard the japanese worked to rebuild the country
This day is called showa day for emperor showa
The day was usually celebrated on his birthday but when he passed in January of 1989 they renamed it to greenery day to show his love for nature
Constitution Memorial Day
This is national holiday celebrated on May 3rd 1947
This day is a reminder that they have human rights
There is many ceremonies and lectures that everyone attends.
On this day everyone is allowed to go to the national diet building in Tokyo that is usually off limits to regular people.
Children day
Childrens Day is celebrated on the 5th day of the 5th month ( May 5th)
This Day became a national holiday in 1948
This day is to respect children and their happiness
Marine Day
This Day is celebrated on the on the third monday of July
This holiday is to give thanks to the oceans bounty
Japan is an island nation and on this day everyone considers the importance

Respect the Age Day
This holiday is celebrated on the third monday of September
There's usually a long weekend for this holiday and is considered one of the “red days” on the calendar
On their 60th birthday you wear red because you are considered a baby again
The Japanese are some of the longest living in the world this day is to celebrate their longevity
Health and Sports Day
Health and sports day is on october 14th
This is to celebrate the olympics held their in 1964
The nation celebrates this day by having organized outdoor sports and games
The holiday was celebrated on October 10th and was changed to the second Monday of October.
Culture Day
This holiday is celebrated on November 3rd
It became a national Holiday in 1946
Many events occur on this day such as going to the imperial palace
awards are given out to people who have done excellent things for people in the field of science art and culture.
Labor Thanksgiving Day
This day is held on November 23rd
Everyone gives thanks for the human rights they have
Everyone is encouraged to think about peace and the environment
Autumn Equinox Day
The Emperor's Birthday
This holiday is a national holiday in the Japanese Holiday
He was born on this day in 1933
Ceremonies take place in the imperial palace on this day
This day is similar to greenery day

Autumn Equinox day is either on the 23rd or 24th of September
The sun crosses over from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere on this day
On this day families visit graves and give respect to their dead family and have get togethers to honor the lives of their family that passed.
Clothing
Two types of clothing: Japanese clothing (和服 wafuku) and Western clothing (洋服 yōfuku).
• Traditional Japanese clothing is used for special occasions such as funerals, ceremonies, coming-of-age ceremonies and festivals.
• Western clothing (modern clothing) is for day to day wear.
• Traditional Japanese clothing includes many different types; fundoshi, furisode, hakama, hanten, happi, jinbeit, gūnihitoe, kimono, obi (sashes), samue, sokutai, tomesode, uwagi, and yukata.
• Clothing that is dark brown and colours that look like leaves are usually worn in the Fall.
• Bright, vibrant colours and floral print are mainly worn in the Spring and Summer time.
• Dark clothing with many layers are worn in the Winter.
• The kimono is the most popular clothing that both the men and women wear.
• There are many types of Kimonos such as the uchikake which white and very long that is worn on the wedding day. The houmongi which has solid colours and is worn after the woman is married. The yukata is a light coloured kimono worn in the Summer and festivals. The tomesode kimono is worn at a close relatives wedding. The mofuku kimono is all black and is worn at funerals to show respect.
• Men’s Kimonos are usually dark while the women wear brighter colours.
• Another traditional Japanese clothing is the Happi. The happi is a coat with long sleeves that has the family crest.
• Western clothing is more modern day clothing such as jeans, t-shirts, skirts, dresses, and suits.

In Japan, there are no official languages; however Japanese is the national language.
There are fifteen languages spoken in Japan such as, Ainu, Amami-Oshima, Northern and Southern, Japanese, Japanese sign language, Kikai, Korean, Kunigami, Miyako, Okinawan central, Oki-No-Erabu, Toku-no-Shima, Yaeyama, Yonaguni, and Yoron while English is the mostly used foreign language
The Japanese language has only 5 vowels: a,I,u,e,o.
Over the centuries, the Chinese, as well as Koreans and the Portuguese have had a heavy influence of the development and history of the Japanese Language
Development of The Japanese Language
Old Japanese
Old Japanese is the oldest stage of the Japanese language, this language was spread through Buddhism.
Early-Middle Japanese
Early Middle Japanese is the Japanese of the Heian period, from 794 to 1185
Late Middle Japanese
Late Middle Japanese covers the years from 1185 to 1600, which are the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period
Modern Japanese
Modern Japanese is considered to begin with the Edo period in 1600, this language has developed in the largest city of Japan.
Art
Origami
Origami (Ori=folding, Kami=paper)
• The art of folding paper to make objects or animals.
• Important in many celebrations.
• The first reference of origami was in a short poem written by Ihara Saikaku in 1680. The poem talks about a dream with paper butterflies.
• These paper butterflies were used to symbolize the bride and the groom at the wedding.
• These paper butterflies were used in weddings from the end of the eighth century to the end of the twelfth century.
• Samurai warriors also exchanged origami in the form of folded paper strips, called Noshi, which were tokens of good luck.

Ikebana (Art of arranging flowers)
• Focused mainly on stems and leaves.
• Emphasizes creative expression but there are rules:
• The shape is usually in the form of a scalene triangle. The three points symbolize heaven, earth, and man or in some other schools, sun, moon, and earth.
• The less, the better
• Focus on natural shapes and colour combination.
• The first form of ikebana is called Kuge. This had evergreen branches and few flowers.
• There are many different styles such as; Moribana upright Moribana slanting, Nageire upright, Nageire slanted, and Nageire cascading. These different styles vary on whether you want to give a bold or softer impression

Music
Dance
• The shamisen: a three string guitar about 38 inches long. has a long narrow wooden neck, a wooden box covered both sides with animal skin, and a set of woven silk strings stretched over a water buffalo horn, tortoiseshell or wooden bridge.
• Sound is produced by plucking strings with the sharp edge of a large plectrum (pick) made of ivory, tortoiseshell or wood, called a bachi. The shamisen makes a thwacking sound. This sound is the base for all the other melodies.
• The koto is the most recognizable instrument.
• The koto is a 6 foot shallow box. Traditionally played kneeling or sitting down.
• They have 13 strings that are strung over 13 movable bridges along the width of the instrument.
• The player has tsume (plectra) attached to three fingers (thumb, index and middle finger) and strums and plucks the strings.


• There are different types of traditional Japanese dance.
• Noh Mai: a dance that is done to music that is made by flutes and small hand drums. At some points they dance to vocal and percussion music, these points are called kuse or kiri. This dance is known for its elegance and beauty. Costumes are a huge part of the dance. Dancers would choose outfits that stand out to keep the audience’s attention.
• This dance usually tells a story.
• Bon Odori: performed during Obon to welcome the spirits of the dead. People usually dance around a tower called Yagura.

Norms of Japan
• The traditional way to greet someone and say goodbye to them would be to bow.
• It is impolite to introduce yourself; therefore you have to wait to be introduced.
• When entering a home, temple and/or restaurant you have to take off your shoes.
• Sterilized masks are sold and worn in public often to avoid any infections.
• Japanese count backwards, starting with their pinky and ending with their thumb.
• Toilet rooms have separate shoes for people to wear when they enter.
• Signs are placed outside of washrooms to remind people the proper use of washrooms.
• Before eating: put hands to together and say “itadakinmasu” (I humbly receive).
After eating: say “Gochiso sama deshita” (Thank you for the meal).
• Walking and eating in public is impolite.
• Tipping at restaurants is not permitted, it is considered rude.
• Books are sealed in plastic not allowing patrons to browse for long periods of time. They have to buy the books to be able to read them.
• It is not considered rude or inappropriate when someone closes their eyes as someone speaks. It is a form of concentration.
• Add “sama” or “san” after someone’s name out of respect.
Cuisine
Rites of Passage
Shichi-Go-San
Shichi-Go-San means seven five three in english. This is on Novemeber 15th for girls turning 3 or 7 and boys turning 3 or 5. On this day families visit each other and have a festival. On this day they pray to kami for protection and to ask for their kids to have a healthy long life.
Coming Of Age Day Is a rite of passage, when you turn 20 you celebrate and realize that you are an adult their are many ceremonies and events held on this.It started off as boys the age of 15-17 celebrating their "man-hood" and was only for men as time past by this holiday became a rite of passage for both females and males this holiday has been celebrated for hundreds of years this whole holiday is payed by from the government and most people celebrate with friends.
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