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DD150 – Design Basics

Unit 1 – Topic 3 – Typography
by

Vivianne Jimenez

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of DD150 – Design Basics

Typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type, type design, and modifying type glyphs LETTERFORMS: FORM & STRUCTURE Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1439. The invention of movable press made books available to the common people. His invention is thougth to have been the most important of the second millenium The letterform is the particular style and form of each individual letter of our alphabet. Think of the letter as a form or shape that has a dual purpose. Its main goal is to communicate, but it also must gel together with other elements on a page to create a successful design. Type is available in numerous styles for the designer just by selecting a font size and style. Letterforms a few years ago were hand drawn. Recently the computer became a tool to assist the designer to create type. Letterforms were placed on fixed format by hand, but now they can be seen anywhere from a window to a scrolling digital board. This has created a huge challenge for graphic designers. According to our graphic design solutions textbook Robin Landa states letterforms are used by designers by three primary forms: Calligraphy: drawn by hand, the strokes made with a drawing instrument, literally ―beautiful writing‖. Lettering: letters that are custom designed and executed by conventional drawing or by digital means Type: letterforms produced by mechanical means. Digitally produced type is by far the most common means of using letterforms for visual communication *Typeface: the design of a single set of letterforms, numerals, and signs unified by consistent visual properties. Type font: a complete set of letterforms, numerals, and signs, in a particular face, size, and style that is required for written communication. Guidelines Ascender line: defines the height of lowercase ascenders.
Baseline: defines the bottom of capital letters and of lowercase letters, excluding descenders.
Capline: defines the height of capital letters.
Descender line: defines the depth of lowercase descenders.
X-height: the height of a lowercase letter, excluding ascenders and descenders.
Ascender: the part of lowercase letters (b,d,f,h,k,l and t) that rise about the x-height.
Character: a letterform, number, punctuation mark, or any single unit in a font.
Counter: space enclosed by the strokes of a letter.
Descender: the part of lowercase letters(g, j, p, q, and y) that falls belowthe baseline.
Lowercase: the smaller set of letters.
Serifs: ending strokes of characters. Stroke: a straight or curved line forming a letter. Uppercase: the larger set of letters. TYPE definitions
Letterforms
 Principles of typography related to design
 Design with type
 Type and visuals The following will be
discussed in this topic: Type family: several font designs contributing a range of style variations based upon a single typeface design. Most type families include bold, medium, and lightweight. Type style: modifications in a typeface that create design variety while retaining the essential visual character of the face. These include variations in weight (light, medium, bold), width (condensed, regular, extended), and angle (Roman or upright and italic), as well as elaborations on the basic form (outline, shaded, decorated). Measuring Type
We measure type through two basic units of measurement: point and pica. Point size is the height of the body or lead the typeface is set upon; it is the height of the type. The height of the type is measured in points and the width of type is measured in picas. pg.77 Spatial Measurement A designer must be aware of the space in between typographic elements. These spaces occur between two lines of type, letters and words. The spatial interval between letters is called letter spacing. Adjusting the letter spacing is called kerning. The spatial interval between two words is called word spacing. The spatial interval between two lines is called leading. pg.78 Leading
Leading, in metal type, is strips of lead of varying thickness used to increase the space between lines of type. It has come to mean line spacing which is the distance between two lines of type, measured vertically from baseline to baseline. Basic Type Specifications
According to our graphic design solutions textbook Robin Landa states when a designer wishes to indicate the type size and leading, the form shown here is used. TYPOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENT 10/11 means a type size of 10 with one point leading
8/11 means a type size of 8 with three points leading
The amount of leading you use depends on several things, type size, line length or length of the ascenders and descenders
When a designer wants no space in between lines, for example, they use a format of 8/8 or 10/10. CLASSIFICATIONS OF TYPE Old style: a style of roman letter, most directly descended in form from chisel edge drawn models, retaining many of these design characteristics. Characterized by angled and bracketed serifs, biased stress, less thick and thin contrast, some examples are Caslon, Garamond, Palatino, and Times Roman. There are many typefaces available and there are some major categories into which most fall. ROMAN According to our graphic design solutions textbook the term Roman has two meanings in typography:
 Letterform designs having thick and thin strokes and serifs, which originated with the ancient Romans
 Letterforms that have vertical upright strokes, used to distinguish from oblique or italic designs, which slant to the right. Sub classifications of Roman Transitional: a style of roman letter that exhibits design characteristics of both Modern and Old Style faces; for example, Baskerville, Century Schoolbook and Cheltenham. Modern: a style of roman letter whose form is determined by mechanical drawing tools rather than the chisel edge pen. Modern letters are characterized by extreme thick and thin contrast, vertical-horizontal stress, and straight, unbracketed serifs; for example, Bodoni, Caledonia, and Tiffany. Egyptian: a style of Roman letter characterized by heavy, slab-like serifs. Thin strokes are usually fairly heavy. It may have Modern or Old Style design qualities; also called square serif or slab serif. For example, Claremont, Egyptian and ITC Lubalin Graph. Italic: letterform design resembling handwriting and denotes angle/slant. Letters slant to the right and are not joined. Originally used as an independent design alternative to Roman, now used as a style variant of a typeface within a type family. Sans serif letterforms are designed without serifs and usually having monocline stroke weights (no clearly discernable thick and thin variations); for example, Futura, Helvetica, and Univers. Some letterforms without serifs have thick and thin strokes, such as Optima, Souvenir Gothic, and Baker Signet. ScriptScript is a letterform design that most resembles handwriting. According to our graphic design solutions textbook Robin Landa states letters usually slant to the right and are joined. Script types can emulate forms written with chisel edge pen, flexible pen, pencil, or brush: for example, Brush Script, Shelley Allegro Script, and Snell Roundhand Script. UnclassifiedAccording to our graphic design solutions textbook Robin Landa states some typefaces do not fall into one of these classifications of type. Here are some traits to look for: Serifs: a collection of many different kinds, such as, bracketed, hairline, oblique, pointed, round, square, straight and unbracketed. Stress: the stress of the letterforms is the axis created by the thick/thin contrast; stress can be left slanted, right slanted or vertical. Thick/thin contrast: the thickness of the strokes varies in typefaces, that is, the amount of width differs between thick and thin strokes. Weight: the thickness of the strokes of a letterform, determined by comparing the thickness of the strokes in relation to the height; for example, light, medium and bold. THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN APPLIED TO TYPOGRAPHY When working with typography always think about the principles of design to create successful designs. The way a designer lays out type will have a major impact on the overall design. Some things to think about are shown here. Emphasis Rhythm Alignment Unity Spacing Illusion SUMMARY
In summary, you explored the use of letterforms in terms of form and structure. You identified key terms in typography. You reviewed how to apply the principles of design to typography. You explained why it is so important to use the principles of design and typography in your designs. You also reviewed how to design with type. Finally you reviewed about type and visuals. Designing with Type PG.75
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