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Transcript of ED
•How did the teacher intervene? What do Chronic Misbehaving students look like? Disrupt the learning of everyone Entice others to misbehave with them Interfere with classroom work time Challenge teacher authority Bad teacher solutions -Teachers will often feel helpless
- They will fall into the trap and try “to get even” * Punishment or retaliation
•Sending student to a counselor or the administration Enduring or implementing strategies? • A study done, by Porter and Brophy, showed that the most effective teachers decided they had to endure chronic misbehavior rather than fight it
• “Enduring” chronic misbehavior will benefit everyone in the class
o Gives everyone more time to work and learn and teach Main Intervention strategies o Building relationships o Cycle of discouragement o Private conferences • Often does not have any positive relationships with any teacher or adult • By chronically misbehaving the students can make their teacher doubt their competence •Teachers can only influence students behavior and react to the student’s behavior •The teacher may have negative feelings towards the student -Disregard these feelings to work towards a positive relationship Teachers must be 1)Persistent 2) Consistent 3) Predictable Bob Strachota—steps to “getting on their side” 1. Wonder why the student chronically misbehaves 2. Develop empathy and intimacy with the student 3. Stay alert for cues or behaviors that reveal other aspects of their personality 4. Monitor own behavior around the student Breaking the Cycle of Discouragement Unfulfilled Self-Esteem Needs
Low Success-to-Failure Ratio Negative Teacher Responses, Punishments and Consequences Negative Behaviours The Cycle of Discouragement The Cycle of Encouragement More Fulfilled Self-Esteem Needs
Higher Success-to-Failure Ratio Positive Teacher Responses, Reinforcements and Consequences Positive Student Behaviours Teacher Behaviours to Meet Self-Esteem Needs Management Techniques AND Logical Consequences Negative Behaviours Unfulfilled Self-Esteem Needs
Low Success-to-Failure Ratio Disrupting the Cycle of Discouragement How Do Teachers Break the Cycle? Private Conferences Tasks accomplished through the private conference • First, it makes sure the student is aware that his/her behavior is problematic and needs to be dealt with • Second, the private conference may act as a building block toward building a personal relationship with the student •Third, it can help students take ownership of their behavior and find ways to self-regulate it. Receiving Skills – Background Info •During private conferences, the teacher needs to be aware of the student’s perception/point of view of the problem •Solutions that ignore the student’s underlying feelings regarding an issue are not likely to be successful. This why student perception is important. Receiving Skills – How teachers can ensure they understand the student’s perspective: •Use silence and non-verbal attending cues: show you are really listening -employ non-verbal cues: eye contact, facial expressions, head nodding, body posture (lean towards the student to show interest) -allow the student sufficient time to express her ideas and feelings •Probe -ask relevant and pertinent questions to elicit extended information, to clarify, and to justify. Eg.
-“Can you tell me more about the problem with Jerry?”
-“What makes you say that I don’t like you?”
-“I’m not sure I understand what you mean by ‘picking on you’; can you explain what that means?” •Check perceptions -Involves paraphrasing and summarizing what the student has said without repeating them.
-It is an attempt by the teacher to capture the student’s message as accurately as possible in the teacher’s own words •Check feelings Attempt to reach student emotions by asking questions and making statements
-use non-verbal cues (ex: facial expression)
-use paralingual cues (ex: voice volume, rate, pitch) ** Eg.
-“It sounds as if you are really proud of what you’re doing in basketball, aren’t you?”
- “You look really angry when you talk about being placed in the lower section. Are you angry?” Receiving Skills – Background Info: •In individual conferencing, it is important that the teacher ensures the student understands the problem from the teacher’s point of view. •Deal in the here and now
•Make eye contact and use congruent non-verbal behaviors
•Make statements rather than asking questions
•Use “I” – take responsibility for your feelings
•Be brief and to the point
•Talk directly to the student, not about them
•Give directions to help the student correct the problem
•Check student understanding of your message Management Techniques ELF Monitoring -Student Directed For those who have the desire to behave.. But have difficulty works best for elementary Important points MUST be to USE MUST have Clearly DEFINED TIME PERIOD MUST be for THEM
THEM As such....... AT the pace of the student... It can be a long event.... At First..... And THEN... Anecdotal Record Keeping an·ec·dot·al:
is a short and amusing or interesting account, which may depict a real incident or person To be used when Self Monitoring has failed or is not an option.... More appropriate for middle to secondary students
- As students have better developed self regulation You simply start by creating a list of both NEGATIVE and POSITIVE Behaviors. Why Both POSITIVE And NEGATIVE? There are NINE guidelines that should be followed when conducting the initial conference.... 1. The teacher should begin on a positive note 2. The teacher should help the student to recognize the past behavior and its negative impact- Show the record you have made.. 3. The Teacher should explain that this behavior is unacceptable and must change 4. The teacher will tell the student that a record of activity will be kept on a daily basis and the student must sign off on it every day... 5. record the phone number on the top of the record and indicate you will call home if the unacceptable behavior continues.... 6. The teacher should be positive and emphasize expectations of improvement.. 7. The conference itself should be recorded on the record.... 8. A verbal commitment for improved behavior should be sought. The refusal or commitment should be noted on the record 9. The student should sign the record at the end of conference. if refuses to sign that should be recorded as well... The Teacher must 1. Focus on the deeds not the student
2. be consistent
3. follow through...
4. Connect the good behavior to increased achievement.. Functional Behavior Assessment Learning Theory Teacher directed..... observe the behavior and try and determine the function for the students behavior Based on 3 principles... - Behavior is learned not innate -Behavior serves a specific purpose -Behavior is related to the context
in which it occurs The following questions should be addressed about the target behavior. 1. how often does the target behavior occur and how long does it last?
2. where does the behavior occur/never occur
3. who is present for the occurrence/non-occurrence
4. what is going on during the occurrence/non-occurrence
5. when is the behavior most/least likely to occur
6. how does the individual react to the usual consequences that follow the behavior Once the Behavior assessment has been complete a behavioral support plan can take place A side note.... Functional behavior assessment is used most often with special needs students....
it is suggested that you ( the teacher) use the help of experts in your school to help carry out the process Behavioral contracting Based on operant conditioning A written agreement/contract - The goal is use contracts to modify student behavior through a technique called behavior shaping 3 principles to be successful with behavior contracting Use a series of contracts to make gradual changes -be realistic Lengthen the time period before a reward is given out for successive efforts Why do you think that's important? Move from extrinsic rewards to intrinsic WHY? Things to keep in mind...... -the contract is between 2 people. You must honor your side!!!!!!! Allow the student to pick the rewards!!!!! A technique of restating the content (“just the facts”) of the client’s message
Restated in the listener’s words Paraphrasing To check that what the teacher understood is actually what the student meant.
To focus the conversation on one aspect of what the student has said.
To express empathy by demonstrating that the teacher is actually listening and understands (aids in relationship building). Purpose of Paraphrasing “So…”
“What you’re saying is…” you are calling out answers in class because you feel my lessons are too easy and you have surpassed the subject level.
“What I’m hearing is…” you feel unsafe at school, and by starting arguments with the other students, you think it will intimidate them into respecting you.
“It sounds like…” Paraphrasing Stems: I don’t think I talk in class that much. Nobody in our class has said anything to me about it, so I don’t think it bothers anyone when I do. Teachers can’t expect students to sit quietly in classes all day long. Nobody else in class is quiet 100% of the time. Let’s give this a try as a group… My family is in debt and my dad just got laid off. It happened so fast. I feel like I need to do something to help, so I’ve been picking up a lot of evening shifts at my job. I finish school at 3, and I work 4 to 11 every night. I’m exhausted. Homework just isn’t my priority right now. Helping my family is. And another one… Definition:
A collection of two or more paraphrases and/or reflections that condense many student messages
Used at the end of a private conference with a student, or at the beginning as a re-cap of the previous conference.
Contains content, thoughts, feelings, and a re-cap of overall agreements made during the conference. Summarization “You’ve highlighted today that you haven’t been completing your homework due to some pressure you have to help your family out financially. You’ve been working every week night instead of spending time on your school work. We have discussed that putting in the effort and turning in assignments to get credit in this course is essential for you to graduate. I’ve made it clear to you that I believe you can succeed, and that I expect you to start turning in all of your assignments. One solution you came up with was working on some of your assignments during your 10 AM spare. We also came to an agreement that if you approach me in advance for an extension, I am willing to help you out. I feel like we can get through this together, and you have agreed that this can work.” Summarization Example How Do Teachers Break the Cycle?
1) What can teachers do to help meet students' needs for significance or belonging?
2) What can teachers do to help meet students' needs for competence or mastery?
3) What can teachers do to help meet students' needs for power or independence?
4) What can teachers do to help meet students' need for virtue or generousity?