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Angel Jowers

on 29 August 2017

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Transcript of Neurotransmitters

Neurons & Neurotransmitters
- These are the chemicals found inside the vesicles of the axon terminals (terminal buttons)
1. Dopamine
2. Serotonin
3. Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
4. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
5. Acetylcholine
7. Glutamate
8. Endorphins
Endocrine System
Disorders of the Endocrine System
1. Diabetes
How do neurotransmitters work?
They fit into the dendrites of the neighboring neuron like puzzle pieces.
Sympathetic - The "fight or flight"
1. Prepares for threats or challenges
Parasympathetic - The "Rest and Digest"
1. Slowing Down
Sends messages to the brain and body about
: pleasures, mood/emotion, arousal, and learning
Sends messages to the brain and body about
: mood stabilizing and relaxation, sleep, and aggression
Sends messages to the brain and body about
: body stimulation
Sends messages to the brain and body about
: body stimulation, mood, and learning
Sends messages to the brain and body about
: muscles contractions, memory, attention, and arousal
Sends messages to the brain and body about
: movement reducing and inducing sleep
Sends messages to the brain and body about
: learning and memory
Sends messages to the brain and body about
Sends messages to coordinate
motor movement
Sends messages to coordinate
muscle function
The Nervous System is separated into 2 parts:
The other message system in the body
There are many kinds of neurotransmitters inside the terminals and each one sends a specific message to the brain
Low levels of Dopamine
= may result in Parkinson's
High levels
= Schizophrenia
(high levels can be caused by cocaine & amphetamines)
Low levels
= Depression
High levels
= Anxiety
inhibit dreaming
- increases heart rate, and breathing during stressful situations
- Usually is released with epinephrine
High Levels = Anxiety
Low Levels = Low energy or depression
Low Levels
= Alzheimers
Called "nature's valium"
Low Levels
= Anxiety, Epilepsy, and Huntington's Disease
High Levels
= migraines and seizures
Anxiety and panic attacks
No established problems
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Parts of the Peripheral Nervous System
1. Sympathetic
2. Parasympathetic
2. Body Arousal
- increase heart rate
- pupils dilate
- begin to sweat
(produces epinephrine)
2. The Calming Response
- heart rate decreases
- pupils constrict
This is slower than the Nervous System
Communicates by sending hormones into bloodstream (this is a chemical process)
2. Dwarfism
3. Giantism
4. Acromegaly
5. Hyperthyroidism
Too little or too much
may result in blood pressure issues
Imbalances may cause
headaches, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, muscle weakness
High Levels
= Vivid Dreams
- pain and pain control
- natural opiate
- releases pleasurable sensations
This is actually both a neurotransmitter and a hormone
Fight or Flight: The Body's Response
Hormones used by the Endocrine System
Growth Hormone
promotes growth of bones and organs
Thyroid Hormones
regulates metabolism
regulates blood pressure and immune system function
regulates blood glucose
Estrogen and Testosterone
Low Levels
= memory loss,
sleeplessness, and
Neurons: nerve cells that handle the information-processing function
Glial cells: provide support, nutrition, and other functions and keep neurons running smoothly (there are about 10x the number of glia as there are neurons)
Tree-like fibers that receive information and send it to a neuron's cell body.
Axon: the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body and to other cells - the path a neural impulse travels
Myelin sheath: a protective layer of cells that contain fat to encase and protect the axon. Helps to speed up the pace of nerve impulses.
Synapse: tiny spaces between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another (the gap is called the synaptic gap).

At the end of the axon are the terminal buttons that store tiny sacs with chemicals that carry information across the synaptic gap to the next neuron.
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