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Traits Theory of Personality

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Paloma Vega

on 22 November 2013

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Transcript of Traits Theory of Personality

Trait Theory of

Karla Reyes
Orlando Cuevas
Ana Cecy Peynado
Valeria Lozano
Paloma Vega
Fransisco Martinez
Carolina Saucedo

A characteristic feature or quality distinguishing a particular person or thing that causes him to behave in certain ways.
Personality is made up of the characteristic, patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. Personality comes from the individual and remains the same throughout life.
Total of all the behavioral and mental characteristics which makes an individual recognized of being
Kinds of Traits
each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person
comparability among individuals but sees people as unique in their combination of traits
What factors motivate you, as an individual person, to find a job?
What factors motivate people in general to
find a job?
Trait Theory of Attribution
Is focused on differences between individuals and on identifying and measuring these individual personality characteristics.
Gordon Allport
1897 - 1967
He was an American psychologist
and one of the first psychologists to
focus on the study of the personality.
He is often referred to as one of the
founding figures of personality

How does he developed
the Trait Theory?
4500 trait like words
The ancient Greeks believed that people’s personalities depended on the kind of humor or fluid that prevalent most in their bodies. The ancient Greeks identified four humors: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile. They categorized people’s personalities to correspond as follows:

Trait Theory of Attribution
It states that human beings possess different characteristics that are constant over time. It also states that not everyone will share the same characteristics or traits; but that these characteristics come from a common pool (a pool of characteristics) that make up the psyche of all humans.
EXAmple: "My dad is outgoing, fun-loving, and extremely active for his age.

Sanguine: Blood. Cheerful and passionate.
• Phlegmatic: Phlegm. Dull and unemotional.

Melancholic: Black bile. Unhappy and depressed.

Choleric: Yellow bile. Angry and hot-tempered.

In 1936, psychologist Gordon Allport found that one English-language dictionary alone contained more than 4,500 words describing different personality traits. He categorized these traits into three levels
cardinal traits

They are the most dominating traits that characterize a person throughout life. Most of the times, people are known by these traits. For example: you can hear people classify others as Nerds, bad-tempered, drama queen, etc. According to Gordon Allport, these cardinal traits usually develop later on in life.
People often become so known for these traits that their names are often synonymous with these qualities
Central traits
Central traits are not as dominating as cardinal traits but yet they are still basic for most individuals. To explain better, a Nerd is a special term often reserved for extremely bright people; however, a central trait would be intelligent and this trait is distributed more evenly among people.

Secondary traits
Secondary traits are traits that appear as a reaction to a situation, but they may not be dominating the personality of the person experiencing them. For example, a person may be impatient waiting in a line, or waiting on someone to call, but that same person may be very patient helping an elderly individual, or helping a child with his or her homework.
It is important to mention that Goldon Allport was the person who developed the theory, and that the others researchers we will mention, based their findings on the theory of Allport.
The trait theorist and psychologist reviewed Alport's 4,000 trait list and reduced personality traits to 171. He eliminated less used traits and he left the traits that were most commonly found in humans. He reduced the number of traits down to 16.

Raymond Cattel
Nowadays, he is known for his famous, Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) which is widely used as a personality test worldwide.

British psychologist Hans Eysenck decided to develop a better theory and he devised a personality theory based on just three universal personality traits:
1. Introversion/Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention on other people and the environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing.
2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: This dimension of Eysenck’s trait theory is related to moodiness versus even temperedness. Neuroticism refers to an individual’s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant.
to understand
better this theory...
Emotional stability
3. Psychoticism: Later, after studying individuals suffering from mental illness, Eysenck added a personality dimension he called psychoticism to his trait theory. Individuals who are high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic and manipulative.
Many researchers felt that Cattell's theory was too complex and that Eysenck's was too limited. As a result, the five-factor theory emerged to describe the basic traits that serve as the building blocks of personality. It hypothesizes that there are 5 core personality traits that are common to humans.
The popular "five factor model" variously created by researchers Costa and McCrae and (separately) by Goldberg embodies the major agreed upon traits fairly well.
Extraversion (or Surgency) describing people's preferences regarding socialization
Agreeableness describing how willing or unwilling people are to please others.

Conscientiousness describing
how seriously people take
responsibilities and commitments
Emotional Stability (or Neuroticism) describing how close, inclined to nervousness and depression people are.
Openness to Experience (or Intellect) describing how willing people are to try new experiences or support non-traditional agendas.
honest, shy, anxious, happy, etc.
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