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Ganges River Presentation
Transcript of Ganges River Presentation
•Unfortunately for India and Bangladesh, China's increasing water needs could affect future diversion intentions. China Bangladesh •Almost entirely agricultural economy
•Top world producer of rice, potato, mango, pineapple, jute, onion, banana and tea
•Currently the most densely populated large country in the world
•Suffers from India’s industry- and religion-based pollution of the river, not to mention their efforts to divert it for their own use
•Over 93% of the catchment area of rivers in Bangladesh lies outside the country. Thus, Bangladesh relies on its neighbors, especially India, for the quality and quantity of freshwater in the country
•Bangladesh has more than 200 large and small rivers out of which 57 are tansboundary rivers. Fifty-four of Bangladesh’s transboundary rivers enter from India. India •Population grew from 448 million to 1.04 billion from 1960 to 2000 and to 1.21 billion by 2010
•Population doubles every 35 years
•500 million Indian people receive their water from the Ganges River
•Responsible for major pollution from industry, agriculture, and also religion Global Water Scarcity •Albert Szent-Gyorgyi: “Water is life’s mater and matrix, mother and medium. There is no life without water.”
•Earth’s water is only 2.5% fresh.
•The U.N. projects that 1.8 billion people will be living under water scarcity by 2025.
•Sudan, Venezuela, Ethiopia, Cuba, and Tunisia are already in water crisis.
•There is insufficient drinking water for almost 900 million people and insufficient water for sanitation for 2.5 billion people.
•This involves an overuse of groundwater, pollution of drinking water, and the potential for warfare.
•Mega countries that are affected by the Ganges River are next in line to suffer major water crises. •The Ganges River flows for 113 kilometers within Bangladesh and creates a border of 129 kilometers between Bangladesh and India.
•The Ganges River, along with other major rivers like the Indus and the Yellow, is a product of the Himalayan Glaciers.
•These glaciers are expected to disappear altogether within a few hundred years resulting in devastating floods and irreversible drought.
•Impacts of this would be unfathomable, considering the near 1 billion people who survive off of the Ganges today and the population explosion expected for the future.
•The problem: all of the developing countries surrounding the Ganges desperately require the resource to support their developing economies and exploding populations, particularly India and Bangladesh. India wants to divert the river for their own needs, but would essentially destroy Bangladesh by doing so. It is a question of distribution of an essential global water resource and conservation for the future. Ganges River Crisis 1977 Ganges Water Agreement 5 year agreement between Bangladesh and India
Allowed for diversion to Bangladesh
Was not renewed 1996 Ganges Water Treaty 30 year bilateral agreement between India and Bangladesh
Arrangements reviewed every 5 years
Bangladesh receives 90% of river flow from Farakka Barrage if arrangements are not met during the treaty's tenure Defining Water Scarcity Population Regulation Approximately half world population relies on water from Himalayas, Tibetan plateau and Tibetan ethic areas of China
Current population growth along the Ganges is unsustainable.
Current practices for regulation are unsanitary
Propose an incentive-based system
sanitation Population India
•Current population (2011): 1,241,491,960
•Projected Population (2030): 1,523,482,000 (+22.7)
•Current population (2011): 150,493,658
•Projected Population (2030): 181,863,000 (+20.8) Poverty along the Ganges http://emergingmoney.com/frontier-markets-2/baltic-states-frn-ewd/attachment/india_ganges_river_slums_poverty/ Climate Change and Seasonality Glacial Melt
Precipitation / Storms •Glacial melt and retreat is expected to increase due to the effects of Climate change.
•nearly 33,000 sq. km of glaciers are at risk in the Himalayan glacial ecosystem
•loss of Himalayan glaciers has the potential to cause water shortages for 500 million people and 37% of India's irrigated land
•Glaciers are estimated to supply 30-40% of the water in the Ganges, which is especially important come the dry season
•Expect climate change to have an impact on all countries that pull from the Ganges. •Frequency of large storms are expected to increase whereas overall storms are expected to decrease (IPCC)
Potential runoff from precipitation will be larger when it is not needed and smaller when it is needed (dry season) Glacial Melt Precipitation / Storms Irrigation Irrigation accounts for:
86% of India's total water consumption
70% of Bangladesh's total water consumption
Loss of glacier meltwater is expected to reduce July–September flows by two-thirds.
potential for water shortages for 37% of India's irrigated land
2025 Projections: total annual freshwater withdrawal for irrigation
India: 760 billion cubic meters
Bangladesh: 34.3 billion cubic meters
For China, this would mean that by 2030, there are plans to withdraw more water than currently being withdrawn. Conservation Efforts Multilateral Agreements Addressing Population
Reduces amount water used
reduces evaporation rates
decrease deposition in sinks
Shift from water intensive crop
Ethical, Cultural concern Bilateral agreements: One of the greatest weakness of previous treaties
More powerful country has final say in action: no enforcement
Multilateral = involvement of more stakeholders
Imposes a "checks and balances" system Nepal Ganges river headwaters running through Nepal
India can also utilize this to divert water for agricultural and industrial purposes
Lessen the pressure on Brahmaputra and Bangladesh
Nepal has potential to create large amounts of hydroelectric power
This can be sold to India for a very acceptable price; currently agriculture dominates Nepal's economy Third Party Mediation UN previously involved in starting Indio-Bangladesh negotiations
1996 Treaty needed a powerful third party mediator
UN can step in once again to make sure both countries stick to terms of contract Summary Water Scarcity is an increasing concern along the Ganges
Multilateral agreement involving all countries involved with the Ganges River
Third Party Mediator
Conservation efforts Policy Brief Presentation: Ganges River Lucy Goss
Eric Thompson http://worldpulse.com/files/upload/3715/water_scarcity.jpg