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LN 2.3 - The Renaissance and Reformation

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by

Jacob Kerber

on 10 March 2015

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Transcript of LN 2.3 - The Renaissance and Reformation

OMG did u hear wut hapnd 2 Caesar?! Sum of his closest friends iced him ryt OTF of the sen8. I hurd dat wuz all coz Cassius wz jLs. I culdnt bleve it bt I hurd dat brutus wuz nvolvD 2. I cant bleve it I luv Caesar so much. I 1ndr if he luvs M2. lol 
Oh my goodness! Did you hear what happened to Caesar? Some of his closest friends killed him right on the floor of the senate. I heard that it was all because Cassius was jealous. I couldn't believe it but I heard that Brutus was involved too. I can't believe it. I love Caesar so much. I wonder if he loves me too.
Examples
 Ur Task: imagin ur sendg a sumre of a historical event 2 a friend via txt msg wrt ^ the sumre in txt msgn lang including all appropriate abbreviations n smilies. Pretend u r directly involved in the event.
(Imagine you’re sending a summary of a historical event to a friend via text message; write up the summary in text messaging language including all appropriate abbreviations and smilies. Pretend you are directly involved in the event.)
TXT MSG SUMRE(Text Message Summary)
Religious Wars Cont.
The Huguenots, French Protestant minority, fought against the Catholics but ended when Henry of Navarre became Catholic and became king.
Edict of Nantes granted religious freedom to Protestants
The Counter Reformation
Religious and Social Effects

EVEN THOUGH EUROPE WENT BACK AND FORTH AND COULD NOT MAKE UP THEIR MIND:

Christianity spread
Jews and Muslims were sometimes seen as criminals
Jews moved to ghettos and their synagogues were burned.
Witchcraft became an issue and many were executed
Political power became somewhat separate from churches
Jesuits
: Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius of Loyola. Military organization that emphasized obedience to the church above all.
The Catholic Counter -Reformation
Reforming the Catholic Church
Counter-Reformation
: a series of reforms
BACK to the Catholic Church
The Counter-Reformation
Mary
became queen and returned England to Catholicism, she burned people at the stake for their Protestant beliefs.
(Bloody Mary!!!)
Elizabeth became queen and split England from the Church
The Protestant Reformation
Act of Supremacy:
which required subjects (people in England) to take an oath declaring Henry VIII to be “Supreme Head of the Church of England” and completely broke away from the Holy Roman Church.
Henry had a total of 6 wives (
two of which were beheaded!) and finally a male heir was born, Edward VI
The Protestant Reformation

Henry then divorced Catherine and married Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn then gave birth to a…
The Protestant Reformation
Henry VIII reformed parliament so England was no longer controlled by the pope.

Henry became head of the
Church of England
The Protestant Reformation
Predestination
: God knows who will be saved, even before people are born, “God has the plan”, therefore guides the lives of those destined for salvations

John Knox
:
reformer in Scotland and began the Presbyterian church
The Protestant Reformation
Lutheranism began to spread
Main Points
Salvation only through
faith

Bible alone
is the only source of truth

People read and interpret the Bible for themselves

Clergy can marry

Peasant revolts started against the Catholic Church and Luther denounced them because he believed in social structure and order.
Nobles suppressed rebellions and tens of thousands of people were killed and left homeless.
-*Lutheranism
Pope excommunicated Martin Luther

Edict of Worms:
declared Luther to be an outlaw and condemned his writings, but it didn’t prevent his ideas from spreading throughout Europe

Luther unintentionally started
Lutheranism
The Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther
In 1517, A priest named Johann Tetzel set up a pulpit in Germany. He offered
indulgences
for the rebuilding of St. Peter in Rome. Tetzel claimed that these indulgences would not only admit the buyer to heaven but also their dead relatives. A young monk named
Martin Luther
saw this as the final outrage
(because the poor could not buy indulgences)
. Luther drew up the
95 Theses,
or arguments against the Catholic Church. He nailed them all over the town.
Catholicism in the 1400s (continued)

John Wycliffe
: believed that the church should give up its earthly possessions. Not be a money-making entity.

Jan Hus:
a priest spoke out against immorality, excommunicated and burned at the stake
Catholicism in the 1400s
Popes led wealthy lives, supported the arts, and hired artists to beautify churches.

To finance new projects the church began to charge high fees for services like marriages and baptisms (sacrements)

Churches also began to sell
indulgences
.
Catholicism in the 1400s
Church fell subject to financial corruption, abuse of power, and immorality

Popes got caught up in worldly affairs like competing with princes and kings for power
*Catholicism in the 1400s
Philosophers and Writers
Desiderius Erasmus
wrote about the need for a simpler life; condemned by the Church

Sir Thomas Moore
wrote Utopia which is book on how to achieve an ideal society

William Shakespeare
was a playwright that focused on realistic characters

Christine de Pisan
focused her writing on women in society
The Northern Renaissance
Depicted peasants and classical themes.

For the first time - the lower classes were being depicted!
Albrecht Durer. The “Northern Leonardo”

-a phenomenal painter and mastered the art of
engraving

Engraving
- artist cuts a design on a metal plate with acid, then makes prints from it.

-Often depicted
religious upheaval
, am important Northern Renaissance theme.
Northern Renaissance Artists
The Northern Renaissance began in the prosperous cities of Flanders, a region that included parts of present day France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.

From Flanders the Renaissance spread to Spain, France, Germany, and England.

Northern artists depicted scenes of
“real”
people- poor, merchants, wealthy, etc. All in emmense detail.
even less religious painting up north
The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance spread to the
north
through trade.
Many artists were persecuted for their work and ran to the North. (England, France, Germany)


Where was St. Peters Basilica?

What is it used for?


St. Peters Basilica
1. What is humanism?
2. What does the word Renaissance mean? What is a Renaissance Man? Who is a good example of a Renaissance Man?
3. How did art change during the Renaissance? Give at least on specific detail...
4. Compare and Contrast the two paintings of the LAST SUPPER below.
Michelangelo
: sculpted La Pieta and David, painted the Sistine Chapel
St. Peter's Basilica in The Vatican City

designed by Bromante, Michelangelo, Maderno, Bernini
“A prudent ruler
cannot
, and
must not
,
honor his word
when it places him at a
disadvantage
and when the reasons for which he made his promise no longer exist”
Machiavelli, The Prince
The Ideal Man according to Castiglione
Athletic but not overactive
Good at games but not a gambler
Plays a musical instrument, knows history and literature, but is not arrogant.

The Ideal Woman according to Castiglione
Graceful
Kind
Lively, but reserved
Beautiful
Offers balance to man
Writings!
Writers focus on Philosophy and Scholarly articles
Wrote guide books for men and women to achieve success
The Italian Renaissance
Architecture
The Social Art
Did away with the Gothic style and brought back archs, pillars, and domes. Believed to be more clean and not so disorderly.
New Artistic styles.
Much more stylized
Represented
humans
and
landscapes

Renaissance Art introduced...
Perspective
- Real life art, depth perception, realistic proportions, etc.

Shading to make art look textured and real.

Sculptors studied human anatomy.
Types of Art and Sciences
Italy was still divided into many small city-states, however they were all apart of
the holy roman empire (the catholic church).

Rome and Italy was the current trading hub of the west.

Merchants brought goods from all over the world. Even created the American money symbol $.

The world center for banking.

Patrons
- Financial Supporters,
financed art and culture and gave the Renaissance power.
Medici’s
supported the arts and were a wealthy and powerful family in Italy
The Italian Renaissance
Why Italy?
Italy was the home of the Roman empire.
Many ruins and artifacts were still in good condition for study and interpretation.
There were still some records of science etc.
The Italian Renaissance
Humanism
-(the study of worldly subjects) and focusing on individual human achievement.
somewhat less focus on religion

Writers turned to a
secular
focus and created the idea of a Renaissance man who was a man who had masterful skill in many different things. (art, sculpting, science, literature, poetry, etc.)
What does
Secular
mean?
Italian Renaissance
Thinkers began to re-examine old ideas and discover new ones.

Education lead to
humanism
The Italian Renaissance
The Beginning of the Renaissance
Farmers began to specialize their crops
City-states became specialized according to their location (Italian cities)
The Italian Renaissance
Ur sumre must:
-include abbreviated words where appropriate.
-include all key points of the event.
-be short and to the point but at least one paragraph.
-be written in a friendly way as if you were personally involved.
-include the regular, non-text message version. 
The Summary
Council of Trent
: group made to fix the old problems Catholicism
priest training
no indulgences
Women worked to help educate people
Inquisition
: a church court that fought Protestantism
The Counter Reformation
Protestantism Spreads to England
Henry VIII: king of England had only one surviving child, Mary Tudor. Henry wanted a boy. He wanted his marriage to Catherine annulled, so he could try a new wife and have a boy.

The Pope says no.

Henry is MAD!
The Reformation Spreads
John Calvin
: from France and preached predestination, or everything is planned,
(some will receive salvation and others won’t.)

Calvin viewed people as sinful in nature and had strict rules regulating behavior, church attendance was mandatory, and making the world better for those “elected” for salvation.

Invented Calvinism, which is Lutheranism, except everything is predetermined.
The Protestant Reformation
Indulgence:
a lessening of time the soul would have to spend in purgatory after sins were forgiven

Purgatory:
Where the soul atoned for sins that were not severe enough for Hell. “Heavens Waiting Room”

Indulgences were typically good deeds, not things that could be bought or sold.

But in the late Middle Ages the church began to sell these indulgences

This angered many people because they were in essence
SELLING and MARKETING SALVATION


Catholicism in the 1400s
The Church
Dun Dun Dun

Protestant Reformation:
a movement that split the church in western Europe and led to the establishment of a number of new churches
*The Reformation!
Printing Revolution
Johannes Gutenberg
- created the
printing press
and printed the Bible

Printed books were cheaper and exposed all classes to literature.

Literacy rates would go way up!
The Northern Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci:
did a lot! (paintings:
The Last Supper
and
The Mona Lisa
) Was also a writer, a scientist, and an engineer.
The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance Ideas
Renaissance
: rebirth, started in Italy and led to a renewed interest and development in art, literature, science and learning.

People started to think more like the ancient Greeks and believe in the ability to create and achieve.
The Italian Renaissance
Martin Luther's writings
95 Theses:
Luther disapproved indulgences, criticized the pope’s power, and the wealth of the church

Luther believed in
faith alone
not good works, that Jesus was the head of the church and not the pope.

Christian practices should only come from the Bible

The 95 Theses were printed and spread all over Europe.
*The Protestant Reformation
What is a fresco?
Think about “fresh”.
Raphael: painted a fresco The School of Athens and of the Madonna
wrote
The Prince
, which explored how governments should
rule,
“the end justifies the means”
Niccolo Machiavelli:
wrote
The Courtier
, which was a guide to
Behavior.




Baldassare Castiglione:
The Italian Renaissance
…GIRL! Elizabeth I
The Counter Reformation
Renaissance Paintings
Knights Charge - 9/17/14
1. Who is the leader of the Catholic Church? What is his name today?
2. Why was the Roman Catholic church so important to people in the Dark Ages?
3. What were two ways the Catholic church could punish people in the Dark Ages?
4. How could the church wield power over rich lords, nobles, and kings?
5. Who were the people who worked for and dedicated their lives to the church? What 3 rules did they have to follow?
THE RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION
signifies changing atttudes
The Medici family invented the worlds first banks.
Where have we heard these names before?

Which one is missing?
Michelangelo
Leonardo Da Vinci
Raphael
Donatello
http://www.vatican.va/various/basiliche/san_pietro/vr_tour/index-en.html?_sm_au_=isVQDnTFckFMZMkP



Paintings
The Mona Lisa - Leonardo Da Vinci
The School of Athens - Raphael
The Last Supper - Leonardo Da Vinci
The Creation of Adam - Michelangelo
Madonna del Prato - Raphael
The Last Judgement - Hieronymus Bosch
The Garden of Earthly Delights - Hieronymus Bosch
Primavera - Sandro Botticelli
The Birth of Venus - Sandro Botticelli
The Last Judgement - Michelangelo
View of Toledo - El Greco
Descent from the Cross - Rogier van der Weyden
Praying Hand - Albrecht Durer

Sculptures
Statue of David - MIchelangelo
La Pieta - Michelangelo
St. Teresa of Avila - Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Apollo and Daphne - Gian Lorenzo Bernini
ANYTHING ELSE YOU CAN THINK OF YOU CAN DO AS LONG AS ITS RENAISSANCE
http://www.vatican.va/various/basiliche/san_pietro/vr_tour/index-en.html?_sm_au_=isVQDnTFckFMZMkP


The Renaissance Spreads North
Knights Charge/Quiz - 2/13/15
Jan van Eyck

What is going to be reformed?
People began to use
humanist
ideas to question the central force in their lives…

Indulgences -
STORY OF MARTIN LUTHER
GRUMPIST
SUCKS FOR HIM
DUDE WAS PISSED...
Pope Francis is a Jesuit, the first Jesuit Pope
SPANISH INQUISITION
Knights Charge/Quiz - 2/23/15
1.) What does Renaissance mean?
2.) Where did the Renaissance begin?
3.) What is a patron? Why did artists need patrons?
4) Can you name one piece of Renaissance art?
Knights Charge - 2/16/15
1. What is St. Peter's Basilica?
2.What is it the "headquarters" for?
3. Where is it located? Who lives there?
4. How does its architecture below differ from the architecture that we saw during the Dark Ages?

Knights Charge - 3/2/15
1. Which people were at the bottom of the feudal structure during the Dark Ages?
2. Which happened first A) Albrecht Durer made
engravings
during the Renaissance, B)Ancient Egypt built the pyramids, C) The Roman Empire fell
3. During the Dark Ages and the Renaissance most people were what religion?
4.
Can you draw lines of

perspective

on these paintings?
Knights Charge - 3/5/15
You DO NOT need your journal this morning.

Get out a piece of paper, put your name on it, and write "
Renaissance Presentations
" at the top.

Draw a line down the middle of your paper, and write
Grade out of 10
at the top of one column and
Reasons

at top of other.

Under the Reasons column, you will be writing
ONE Great thing
, and
ONE way they could have improved


95 Theses style Picket Signs
You are living during the
Protest
ant Reformation.
Create
a picket sign that protests and goes against the corrupt Catholic church of the time. Remember you are not against Christians, just against the corrupt "old" church.

Your sign should have a
catchy slogan
, and a
picture
of some sort.

Example: "Say nope to the Pope"

Knights Charge - 3/10/15
What are their complaints?

What would the complaints be if you were protesting during the Prostant Reformation in Europe?
1. In the 1400s during the Protestant Reformation, what were some of the problems people had with the Catholic church?

2. What was an
indulgence
?

3. Who was the monk who had a problem with the Catholic Church? What document did he write?


Groups for 3rd Period
Maesa, Kam, DJ
Tiffany, William, Tangie
Staci, Keyshawn, Nic
Kacey, Will, Arnold
Jeremy, Matthew, Trey
Miracle, Timia, Makayla
Kamauri, Kaleb, Trevon
Camryn, Kaylin, Josh
4th
Elizabeth, Brandon
Ana, Kiara, Courvosier
Nadia, Chad
Amaya, Jeremy
Keyana, Paris, Regis
Jamal, Fortrell
Isiah, Amariee, Shaquan
Kameron, Vianehi
Mykera, Dylan, Josue
Colby, Amy, Annie
Knight's Charge 10/3/14


1. What is the difference between
excommunication
and
interdict
?
2. What was two specific changes that occurred in history between the Dark Ages and the Protestant Reformation?
3. Write a
five word or less
summary of the
Protestant Reformation
.
2nd Period Groups
4th Period Groups
Knights Charge - 9/29/14
Retrieve your presentation T-chart from the chair. If you were not here Friday, get out a piece of paper.

Underneath the last presentation, write 2 things that you have learned from your peers presentations so far

Make a T chart like Friday on it with a + (positive) column, and a (triangle) what you would change column, and a 1-10 column.

Leonardo Da Vinci Video
Write one interesting fact about the method of painting during the Renaissance.

List 3 technological innovations that Leonardo Da Vinci invented.

Write 3 questions that you have about Leonardo Da Vinci and his works?
Knight's Charge 9/30/14
1. What is one interesting fact about Leonardo Da Vinci?
2. Why to we call Leonardo Da Vinci a Renaissance Man?
3. What was the
Printing Press
? How did it affect literacy (reading) rates during the Renaissance?
4. What was the first book to be widely published on the printing press?
5. What are the four steps to the
ACES
writing process?
Exit Ticket
a. Why was Martin Luther upset with the Catholic Church?

b. What was Martin Luther’s written complaints against the Catholic church called?

c. Did Martin Luther mean to cause a split in the church? Was he trying to start Lutheranism?

Knight's Charge/Quiz - 3/4/15
1. What famous
playwright
emerged out of the England during the Renaissance?
2. What new art method did
Albrechdt Durer
master that involved metal plates, ink, and acid?
3. Who sculpted the
Statue of David
?


I will give you 10 minutes to
quietly
study for quiz
Jacqueline and Jennifer - Apollo and Daphne
Shakia and Brennen - The Sistine Chapel Ceiling
Faustino, Dariel, Bairon - The Garden of Eartly Delights
Taylor and Kairma - The Birth of Venus
Troy and Jamesa - Descent from the Cross
Aviona and Shae - Primavera
Unique and Yasmine - The Mona Lisa
Muyhi and Khenedi - La Pieta
Nautika and Michelle - Praying Hands
Yazmean - The Last Supper
Jacob and Pedro - The Last Judgement
Trey and Jesse - St. Teresa de Avila (sculpture) - the Ectasy of St. Teresa
Zack and Ray - The Mona Lisa
Ryan and Donnie - The Last Supper
Courtney - The Last Judgement
Victor - The Birth of Venus
Chris - the Last Judgement
Tyreek and Randy - The Creation of Adam
Ben and Kiyah - Statue of David
Aldo - The Garden of Earthly Delights
Shakiera and Lyshell - The Birth of Venus
Jada - The Statue of David
Yami and Shamega - Apollo and Daphne
Lizbeth and Anglea - View of Toledo
Ayanna - Apollo and Daphne
Carlos - The Garden of Earthly Delights
Malik - Descent from the Cross
Jeremiah - Statue of David
1. Why to we call Leonardo Da Vinci a Renaissance Man?

2. What was the
Printing Press
? How did it affect literacy (reading) rates during the Renaissance?

3. What was the first book to be widely published on the printing press?
Knights Charge/Quiz - 3/3/15
BY THE END OF CLASS TODAY, I WILL HAVE YOUR POWERPOINT ON A FLASH DRIVE AND I WILL PUT INITIALS ON RESEARCH NOTES - BOTH FOR A GRADE
Also, write down the answer to this question... don't say the answer out loud...
What color is this dress?
Knight's Charge/Quiz - 3/9/15
1. Finish the following sentence: During the Renaissance, the shift to humanism signified an educational focus on humans and worldly objects rather than a focus on _____________________________. (A. art, B. religion, C. rebellion)

2. Why was the
Printing Press
important?

3.
True or False
: During the Renaissance, artists tried to imitate styles that were used in older civilizations, such as Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.
Full transcript