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STALIN'S FIVE YEAR PLANS
Transcript of STALIN'S FIVE YEAR PLANS
FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN
SECOND FIVE YEAR PLAN
To give heavy industries top priority and continue the 'success' of the First-Five-Year plan.
The success of the previous plan and continue the economy development
improvements made in communications and railways (faster reliable); significant rise in steel production more than 17 million tonnes; employed incentives
failed to reach the recommended production levels in the coal and oil industries
unofficially started the Second-Year Plan a year ahead due to the early achievements of goals set in the previous plan; new industries enormous growth, such as in chemicals and metallurgy industries
harsh punishments were given when disobeyed the rule or did not achieved its goal to the workers in industries
THE EFFECTS ON INDUSTRY:
puts the nation not far behind Germany as one of the major steel-producing countries in the world
THE EFFECTS ON SOCIETY:
mothers were encouraged to work; The Great Purge; Murder of Kirov the leader of Leningrad Communist Party
A photograph showing an industrial plant being built at Magnitogorsk - thousands of laborers paticipated.
The Soviet Union did recovered its economy however the workers' hard labor was needed with secret polices force.
BASIC INTRODUCTION ABOUT STALIN'S FIVE YEAR PLANS
VIBRANT CULTURE LIFE IN SOVIET UNION
To maintain his powerful leadership, Stalin forced artists and poets to describe Stalin as the most glorious man, like 'Uncle Joe' to the people. Some depressed artists and writers committed suicide or tried to run away from Stalin's hands.
Moreover, Stalin ordered all the education in the Soviet Union to suggest Stalin's great achievements and encourage the children to praise him. Outside of school, the students were expected to join youth organizations, from Octobrists to Komsomol, indoctrinating to be Stalin's followers who obeys communism and socialism.
Also, the women gained more 'freedom' than in the past for Stalin to create a perfect environment for children to become a great socialist and increase the labor force by allowing women to do hard work.
Overall, arts and music were characterized by the style of Socialist realism - great writers such as Osip Mandelstam were killed by NKVD or died of starvation who stood against the government. Over 250 writers died during the Great Purge - which reminds of China's Great Leap Forward that also loses many lives of talented people. The libraries and books that was not controlled by the government had to be removed and destroyed. Music was also repressed - musicians like Dmitri Shostakovich's music was prohibited and denounced twice during Stalin's leadership. Without government's permission, the culture of Soviet Union could not be freely shared.
VISITORS THOUGHTS ABOUT SOVIET UNION
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW:
George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was enthusiastic about the Soviet Union and praised the places he saw during the visit. On his return he published his praise calling the USSR a ‘civilized territory’ and defended it declaring ‘we saw [a] hopeful and enthusiastic working-class…developing public works, increasing health services, extending education, achieving the economics of independence of woman and the security of the child…..setting an example of industry and conduct which would greatly enrich us’ (from a letter to the Manchester Guardian 2 Mar 1933). He was one of the western communists that supported Stalin's government. However, majority of capitalist countries viewed Stalin's Soviet Union as poor governing nation such as US with millions of anti-Stalin who were executed or sent to gulag in Soviet Union.
Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (1879.12.21~1953.3.5), who survived and became the only leader after the Leadership Struggle in Soviet Union, introduced Five-Year Plans to improve its nation economy which was known as the poorest economy in Europe due to war and revolutions. Stalin's three series of Five-Year Plans are nation-wide centralized economic plans, and it has developed by a state planning committee that was based on the Theory of Productive Forces that was part of the general guidelines of the Communist Party for economic development. The plan was strongly followed in the nation - and has produced some successful results but some goals failed or were uncompleted.
Use Collectivization policy to boost the agricultural production and facilitate the process of rapid industrialization.
To improve the collapsed economy by heavy industry and also improving the efficiency of agriculture industry with elimination of the "KULAK" class (wealthy farmland owners)
Coal and iron production both doubled its output; Electric power production almost tripled; 1500 new plants built - most goals achieved a year early
In short term, the collectivization was forced by the armies and secret police - this reduced grain output and almost halved the livestock numbers
Creation of collective farms in which peasants worked cooperatively on the same land with the same equipment; centuries-old system of farming destroyed
the disastrous effects were kept secret such as the secret polices or executions without trials to the protestors; mass murder and wholesale deportation of farmers to Siberia, produced major famines in 1932 and 1933 (11million people died by famine due to sudden disruption of production, mass seizure of property, less payment, etc.)
THE EFFECTS ON INDUSTRY:
increased its natural resources output; increase in number of workers in industry, construction and transport from 4.6million to 12.6 million, soared factory output
THE EFFECTS ON SOCIETY:
workers lived together in villages or cities and shared its profit - all the resources were organized by the government and there were no personal profits; food rationing system
During the three Five-Year Plans, there were three major floods in St.Petersburg, one of the important cities in Soviet Union. In 1929 October 15, 1932 January 8, 1935 October 8, 1937 September 9, and 1938 September 14 are the dates when the delta of Neva River overflowed and Neva Bay surged water. This damaged many factories and lost hundreds of lives, which the government tried to build dams to prevent flood. However, there weren't any effective dams due to constant floods and slow process of building large dams.
DURING THE THREE FIVE YEAR PLANS
LIFE LIKE FOR RUSSIANS IN THE 1930s
THE GREAT PURGES
- Ministry of Internal Affairs
(1946-1941 in Soviet Union)
Ministry of Internal Affairs is the police organization in the former Soviet Union, formed in 1946.
THIRD FIVE YEAR PLAN
To continue the previous aims and let Soviet Union praise Stalin and unite the nation in a single powerful leader
Continue Stalin's dictatorship
sustained 12% to 13% rate of annual industrial growth was attained in the Soviet Union before and after the WWII
too much force by the government to achieve the high goals in industry and did not increased its production rates as the previous two plans
more resources were put into developing armaments, tanks and weapons due to the Second World War, which also disturbed Stalin's Third-Five Year Plan to run for 3 years only
NKVD (secret police) caught and sent any anti-Stalin to gulag (labor camp) or executed mostly without trials
THE EFFECTS ON INDUSTRY:
mainly focused on producing large amount of tanks and weapons for war preparation in the third year which caused lack of resources in the Soviet Union to be supplied to the people
THE EFFECTS ON SOCIETY:
harsh labor usage which resulted as poor efficiency and deaths of millions of workers
LIFE LIKE IN ENGLAND
LIFE LIKE IN USA
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
In America, 1930s was a decade that was characterized by an economic downfall following the Wall Street Crash of 1929. New technologies were discovered such as intercontinental aviation and radio. Moreover, it was also not a peaceful decade since World War II broke out as well.
The life of ordinary people were quite poor, where a large families crawled in a small house. Some ran small business in the cities, and some grew crops in the rural area but food was very valuable in the days. Their days were poor and devastating, with no huge improvements until after the World War II has finished.
However, there were filled with great authors - for example John Steinbeck, who produced the Pulitzer winning novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939) and Of Mice and Men (1937)
by: Alice OH
- Labor camps during the Stalin era (1930s~1950s)
A prison camp where conditions were extremely bad and the prisoners were forced to work very hard. The name gulag came from the prison camps in the former Soviet Union.
- People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs (1934~1946)
The Soviet police and secret police from 1934 to 1943 (the police from 1943 to 1946) Also, it's parent agency is CPC (Council of the People's Commissars)
Industrial Prgress in 1934-1938
Soviet Natioal Income Growth - There are huge difference from Soviet statistics and statistics from other nations: Did Stalin also exaggerated the results?
Using these agencies and labor camps, Stalin effectively held political purges and spread the Great Terror to the ordinary people and convinced people to praise him. During the Five-Year Plans was the great timing to maximize the effect of the Great Purge as he had the most powerful control over the nation. In the Great Purge, millions of anti-Stalin, talented people and ordinary people were crucially killed or sent to labor camps where death was the result for most of them.
In the 1930s, every one had absolutely no freedom from Stalin's government in the Soviet Union. In the media, art, work and even at homes had ears and eyes of Stalin.
Overall, Soviet Union did become a major industrial nation by 1939 and her progress was unmatched in the era of the Depression in America and western Europe where millions were unemployed.
• those workers who did not offend the state were better off than under the reign of the Tsar.
• Russia’s military forces were benefiting from her industrial growth.
• there was a stable government under Stalin.
• people had access to much better medical care some 10 years before the National Health Service was introduced in GB.
However, Stalin's dictatorship also produced unpleasant results:
• millions had died in famine after the failed experiment of collectivization.
• Russia’s agriculture was at the same level in 1939 as in 1928 with a 40 million increased population.
• Russia had become a ‘telling’ society. The secret police actively encouraged people to inform on neighbors, work mates etc. and many suffered simply as a result of jealous neighbors/workers.
Additionally, many of Russia's most talented people had been murdered during the Great Purge. Anyone with talent was seen as a threat by the increasingly paranoid behavior associated with Stalin and were killed or imprisoned (which usually lead to death). The NKVD and MVD was a body without humanity as most of her senior officers had been arrested and murdered crucially during the Purges.
There were obvious problems with food production and shortages elsewhere. Some people did very well out of the system especially party officials and skilled factory workers and health care was greatly expanded. Since that facility was available though demand for it was extremely high, and the number of doctors rose significantly. However, there is evidence that they were so scared of doing it wrong, that they had to go by the rule book and make appointments for operations which people did not require.
On the other hand, Stalin kept struggled on the people's housing problems. In Moscow, only 6% of households had more than one room. Those apartments that were put up quickly, were shoddy by western standards. In was not unusual for flat complexes to be built without electric sockets despite electricity being available - building firms were simply not experienced to the new skills.
However, leisure was available, where for the average Russian person was based around fitness and sport. Every Russian was entitled to have a holiday each year which would have been banned in the Tsar's days. Clubs, sports facilities etc. were provided by the state. The state also controlled the cinema, radio etc. however an emphasis was always placed on praising and thanking Stalin.
Life in England in the 1930s was very difficult and people lived in abject poverty due to the economic depression. People were so poor they could not afford to go to hospital, which caused many deaths and illnesses. Garments for adults were recycled into children’s clothing, and food was scarce that some poor people starved.
Britain economy in the 1930s was also very tough and bleak. Due to the 1929 Wallstreet crash, many industries such as steel, ship building and coal mining industry collapsed and this led to high unemployment of people. Thus, majority of the working class lived in poverty and appalling conditions with just enough to eat.
BOOKLET: Were Stalin's Economic Policies a Success or a Failure? (p.g86~99)
Stalin the Steel man
Summary of Stalin's three
The Soviet Union did increased its industrial output during the Great Depression when most of the countries' output decreased