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The Major Education Policy Actors

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Chloe Bolyard

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of The Major Education Policy Actors

The Major Education Policy Actors
The Legislative Branch
Executive Branch
Judicial Brach
Hold hearings
Review existing laws
Approve the government's budget
Study a policy issue
Oversee the implementation of a new piece of legislation
Investigatory function
Legislative Staff
Clerical staff
often control access to the legislator
Professional staff
screen and filter material that goes to the legislator
Centralized staff agency
specialized work
Important Legislative Actors
Members of education committees
develop education laws
review existing legislation
hold hearings on education policy issues
Finance committee
Powerful speaker
Legislative staff members
Mostly 4-year terms
Appoint state officials
Control over state budget
Veto legislation
Act as "issue catalysts"
emphasis on education
State Boards of Education
In all states except WI
2nd to legislatures on education policy
9 or 11 appointed members
K-12 & vocational education
Make education policy within legal framework
rules & regulations implementing laws
certification requirements
approve and monitor assessment
graduation requirements
accreditation requirements
Chief State School Officers (CSSO)
A public official who supervises public education
Professional educators (admin)
Appointed or elected
Heads the SDE
State Departments of Education (SDE)
Headed by the CSSO
Some professional educators
Role in legislation process
impact of proposed policy
rules and regulations of the new law
monitors degree of compliance to enacted law
Two- & Three-Tiered Systems
Two-tiered in eleven states
trial courts
supreme courts
Three-tiered in thirty-nine states
trial courts
appellate courts
supreme courts
Former lawyers
Appointed or elected
Interpret the statutes enacted by legislatures and can overturn them
Influencing the Courts
(Congress & 49 state legislatures)
6-year terms
Leader is called the "president"
lieutenant governor or
senator is elected/appointed
handles proposed legislation in a specific policy domain
House of Representatives
2-year terms
Lively, partisan
Leader is the "speaker"
elected by members of the house
usually a veteran leader
handles proposed legislation in a specific policy domain
Legislators affiliated with a party
Develop policy agenda
Led by chairpersons or legislative officer
Source: Google images
Source: Google images
Support the election or appointment of certain judges
Pay the legal expenses of plaintiffs
File amicus curiae briefs
Local Boards of Education
Agencies of state government
History of power shifts between local and state boards of education
Develop policies within the SDE's policy framework
Example: length of school year in days
Implement state-mandated policies
Example: state testing programs
Local Government Actors
Appointed by school boards
Most are White males in their mid-to-late fifties, who were former teachers then principals, and hold a doctorate
Crisis of the position
pressure to implement state mandates (often without funding)
participate in accountability systems
Active in state-level policymaking process
Nongovernmental Policy Actors
Interest Groups
Policy Networks
The Media
Prepared by Chloe Bolyard for EDL 771
Fall 2013

"an association of individuals or organizations...that, on the basis of one or more shared concerns, attempts to influence public policy in its favor" (Thomas & Herbenar, 2004, p. 102)
Education Interest Groups
Teachers' Unions
National Education Association (NEA)
American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
National School Boards Association (NSBA)
American Association of School Administrators (AASA)
Parent-Teacher Association (PTA)
Noneducation Interest Groups
Business Lobby (keep tax low)
Ethnic-based groups
La Raza (bilingual ed)
Christian Coalition
Anti-Defamation League
Conference of Catholic Bishops
Single-issue ideological groups
Education policy network
Education Commission of the States (ECS)
Other policy networks
Children's Defense Fund
Policy-planning organizations
Funded by foundations, corporations, and individuals
Gather empirical data about public policy issues and communicate to governments
Decide which social problems will be considered public policy issues
Disseminate info through
sponsoring the activity of policy entrepreneurs
Policy Networks
Think Tanks
Screens, selects, and recontextualizes information
Important in agenda setting
Set the media agenda --> political agenda
Their Policy Role
Organization of the Media
news agencies
television channels
online services
Nationally and Locally
State as "a neglected stepchild" (Graber, 2010, p. 273)

Graber, D. A. (2010). Mass media and American politics (8th ed.). Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.

Thomas, C. S., & Hrebenar, R. J. (2004). Internet groups in the states. In Fowler, F.C. (2012). Policy studies for educational leaders: an introduction (4th ed.). Pearson.
Source: Wikipedia
Source: CCSSO website
How School Leaders Respond to Media
Assess the quality of the coverage by media outlets in their geographic area.
Identify the interest groups that maintain legislative updates on their websites
Identify all the legislative hot lines associated with education in the state.
Full transcript