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Munich Putsch

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Jade Tsui

on 24 March 2013

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Transcript of Munich Putsch

Background What Happened inside the Bürgerbräukeller(Beer Hall)? Why did the Putsch Fail? What the Nazis Hope to Achieve On November 8, 1923, Hitler and his Stormtroopers, the SA, went to the Munich beer hall when he noticed that those who he wanted to kidnap are going to be there. People who were invited including: businessmen and the guests of honor who were to be the Bavarian leaders. Munich Putsch The Munich failed mainly because of the poor planning and the underestimation of forces. The reasons are categorized into 2 groups. By: Jade Tsui & Angela Chen Key Individuals Involved How Hitler benefited from the Munich Putsch even though it failed Timeline of Events What Happened at the End? Hitler and the Nazis came up with a plot in which they would kidnap the leaders of the Bavarian government and force them at gunpoint to accept Hitler as their leader. Then, according to their plan, with the aid of famous World War One hero General Erich Ludendorff, they would be able to “seize the power of the German army, proclaim a nationwide revolt, and bring down the German democratic government in Berlin.” Hitler also hoped to copy Mussolini - the Italian fascist leader who had come to power in Italy in 1922 by marching into Rome. Even though the Munich Putsch failed and Hitler was imprisoned for nine months, he still benefited largely from the result.

1. Hitler effectively turned his trial into an opportunity to increase his popularity by giving long and emotional speeches about his beliefs. Before the Munich Putsch, he was an unknown Barvarian politician, but after his trial he became a well known right-wing hero.
Even the judge for Hitler’s trial, agreed with Hitler’s and that’s the main reason why instead of receiving a death sentence, he only spent 9 months in prison.

2. During Hitler’s time in prison, he wrote “Mein Kampf”, in which he set out his beliefs, ideas, and his life story. The book was sold for over millions of copies, and made Hitler more well known to civilians which earned him more support from the people.

3. The time in prison also made Hitler realized that he could not gain power by rebellion merely using force. He came up with a new strategy- to gain power by being elected. This idea ensured future success for Hitler and the Nazi Party. Bibliography "The Bavarian Ministry is removed. I propose that a Bavarian government shall be formed consisting of a Regent and a Prime Minister invested with dictatorial powers. I propose Herr von Kahr as Regent and Herr Pohner as Prime Minister. The government of the November Criminals and the Reich President are declared to be removed.
I propose that, until accounts have been finally settled with the November criminals, the direction of policy in the national Government be taken over by me. Ludendorff will take over the leadership of the German National Army, Lossow will be German Reichswehr Minister, Seisser Reich Police Minister." -Adolf Hitler, speech made at the Burgerbraukeller, (8th November, 1923) During the Hyperinflation crisis of 1923, Hitler plotted with two nationalist politicians - Kahr and Lossow - to take over Munich in a revolution.

4 October 1923 - Kahr and Lossow decided to call off the rebellion. Hitler had 3,000 troops ready to fight and that was terrible news for him.

8 November 1923 - Hitler and 600 stormtroopers burst into a meeting that Kahr and Lossow were holding at the local Bürgerbräukeller.

9 November 1923, Hitler and his Nazis went into Munich thinking that they would win and take over the power. However, Kahr had called in police and army forces. There was a short scuffle in which the police killed 16 Nazis. Hitler fled.

11th November 1923 - Hitler was caught and sent to prison. To the Nazis: To Hitler:
*Hitler and Ludendorff thought that it would be an easy task to takeover.
* Hitler had thought that people would just come and join in helping them takeover the putsch.
* Hitler and Ludendorff had assumed that they wouldn't be punished. Underestimation of the Situation Misjudgments of Hitler and Ludendorff
* The Nazi's didn't have enough supporters and Hitler had no support from local Bavarian leaders.
* Ludendorff had let Von Khar and Lossow leave the beer hall.
* It had taken too long for the whole operation to happen, the momentum of the Nazi's had decreased a great deal.
* Ludendorff had let Von Khar and Lossow escape the beer hall. The rest of the Nazis were scattered or arrested. Ludendorff was arrested, and even though the Nazis were banned after the incident, they got away with light sentences because of Hitler’s convincing speech. After the Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler spent two nights in a friend’s (Hanfstaengl) house. On the third night, the police arrived and arrested him. After the trial, Hitler was taken to the prison at Landsberg where he wrote his book “Mein Kampf”. At 8:30 p.m. Hitler and his stormtroopers burst into the beer hall causing instant panic. He tried to intimidate those in the beer hall and said “The National Revolution has begun.”He ordered three of the highest officials of the Bavarian government into a back room.

Kahr, Seisser and Lossow were threatened by guns Hitler informed them that they were to join him in proclaiming a Nazi revolution. Hitler promised Kahr that he would get a key position in the new national government while Lossow would become a senior post in the German Army.However, they weren’t interested in Hitler’s plan. Hitler said to them "I have four shots in my pistol! Three for you, gentlemen. The last bullet for myself!"

After General Ludendorff arrived, and Hitler knew that the three officials would support him when they see Ludendorff. Ludendorff advised the officials to support the Nazis. They agreed and went out to face the crowd and show their support for Hitler.

Once Hitler gained the support he had wanted from Bavaria’s senior politicians, the SA allowed the people in the beer hall to leave. When the meeting was over, Kahr, Lossow, and Seisser, slipped out of the beer hall. Three of them falsely promised Ludendorff they would remain loyal to Hitler, after that, they reported what had happened in the beer hall to Berlin. Early morning hours of November 9, Hitler knew that Kahr had broke their promise as well as the army and police had been ordered to put down the Nazis when they started the march. However, Hitler determined to continue the plan. At around 11:00pm, with his 3000 men, Hitler marched towards the centre of Munich when they encountered a police blockade. Both sides started firing, this lasted about a minute. 16 Nazis and 3 policemen were killed. Hitler suffered a dislocated shoulder. He then went into a waiting car and left. Gustav von Kahr:
He was the Bavarian Prime Minister. The son of a senior Bavarian civil servant and was born in 1862. Kahr held right-wing, nationalist views and was eventually elected as the leader of the Bavarian People's Party. Kahr became head of the provincial government of Upper Bavaria during world war one. Erich Ludendorff:
Ludendorff was a famous World War One General/hero. He participated in both the Kapp Putsch, which took place during March 1920, and the Munich Putsch. Few years later, Ludendorff became one of the first supporters of the Nazi Party in the Reichstag. General Otto von Lossow:
Commander of the German Army in Bavaria. He entered the Bavarian Army in 1888 and served in a variety of assignments. He formed part of the right-wing triumvirate in Bavaria, along with Kahr and Hans Seisser. Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser: The head of the Bavarian State Police in 1923. He formed part of the right-wing triumvirate in Bavaria, along with Gustav von Kahr and Otto von Lossow. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Ritter_von_Kahr Pictures http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/ger-340-luden-portrait.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/Major_v._Lossow.jpg/220px-Major_v._Lossow.jpg http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v380/Epp/lossow.jpg Information http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/putsch2.htm
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/beer_hall_putsch_of_1923.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/germany/munichputschrev3.shtml
http://www.johndclare.net/Weimar_Munich_putsch.htm Germany 1918-1945 by Aaron Wilkes
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