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Phonemic Awareness and Phonics

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Meaghan Dunlop

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of Phonemic Awareness and Phonics

Tips for Getting Started With Assessment
Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
Assessing
Spelling: Segmenting Sounds and Representing Sounds with Letters
Ten Minutes That May Change a Life
• Kindergarten is the intended audience of the article, but the key concepts and assessment time frame can easily be followed by every grade level.

• Children with reading disabilities were described by researchers as children who somehow got off track on the road to learning to read. (Spear-Swerling, 2004). Do you agree or disagree with that statement?
The term "phoneme" is used
to describe the smallest part
of our language.

Don't just look, listen: uncovering children's cognitive strategies during spelling-related activities
Phonemic Segmentation Assessment
The Spelling Analysis Guide
Tikea, Jacob, Olivia: What They Teach Us
Introduction
3 Sources of Kids' Spelling Sense
The Stages of Spelling Development
There are three sources of a child's early knowledge about spelling:

1. The names of the letters
2. The way a sound feels in the mouth when it is spoken or articulated
3.The way the letter names feel when they are spoken or stretched
Emergent Stage
Letter-Name Stage
Within-Word Stage
We as educators need to...
engage children in reading and writing tasks so that we know where children are at and where they need to go.
realize what children already know from their family and their community and then take that knowledge to transform learning and teaching in the classroom.
accessing their prior knowledge to be knowledgeable about literacy, what it looks like along a developmental continuum, how writing, reading , listening, and speaking are related and reciprocal.

What are the purposes for assessments?
Purposes of assessment are...
beginning of the year to have a starting point for instruction.
midyear (can technically be any time during the year) allows you to see how your instruction is performing and to relay this information to parents.
end of the year assessment allows the teacher to document the progress the student made during the year and then to report this information to the next school years teacher.
Set aside about 30 minutes each morning to assess children’s literacy for the first few weeks of school. To do so, you may use parents who volunteer their time or paraprofessionals who can take over the class while you test individually.
Use a small table to place all of your materials. Place table in an area where you can watch the class without having to turn around.
Conduct the assessments as presented in the article.
Tips (continued)
For a full ten minutes give one on one assessments to each individual. You may want to do it longer, depending on the amount of knowledge the student already has.
Document individual student progress on the Student Profile Sheet.
a. Write student name
b. Write score next to name
c. Record date on sheet d.Three times a year fill in sheet (beginning, middle, end of year)
e. Use information obtained at any time needed
f. Use Class Record Sheet to help organize small, flexible groups for targeted information
Maintains children’s work and can be used to organize and spotlight individual's efforts, improvements, or achievements over a period of time.
Portfolios, why use them?
Portfolios allow teachers to...
emphasize what students can really do.
select items to include that students can assist in the choosing.
can be sent home or to the next grade at the end of the school year.
talk along with the student while they self-evaluate their work.
use the portfolio to show the amount of steps taken for mastery.
Portfolios...
• The benefits of using a portfolio also include involving each student in their own learning adventure. They can also allow you and the student to compile writing samples over time that represents development.
• Portfolios are a very effective means in communicating progress with parents. It can show parents how students have met grade level standards.

What can go into a portfolio?

1. Personal word banks
2. Writing samples
3. Pages from core program workbooks
4. Personal dictionaries
5. Pages from journals or writing logs
6. Reading logs
7. Word-Study notebooks
8. Student self-assessment forms

Assessing
Phonological Awareness

What does the term
"phoneme" mean?

Phoneme
It is the sounds we
hear when we say a word.
Each sound is broken down
into their individual sounds.
To break the word bat into its phoneme parts, we would set it up like this:

/b/ /a/ /t/
This shows the students how each of the letters has its own sound.
Phoneme
Example
How well does this work with our language?
Not very well. Their are seven different ways to get the sound
"A"
.
Phonemes
So what does teaching students phonemes really mean?
It means that we are teaching them to listen for what sounds they can hear in our language to help them learn the words. This is known as "Phonological Awareness". They must also learn to associate those sounds to what letters they see on a piece of paper.
First Types of Phonological Awareness Rhyming
One of the first patterns that children pick up, when they are learning how to read, is rhyming patterns.
Second Type of Phonological Awareness
Initial Sounds
Another type of "phonological awareness" that develops early in a child's life is the ability to distinguish the initial sounds in words. This tends to go hand-in-hand with learning the letters of the alphabet.

Phonological Assessments

The two types of sort assessments are:
1. Rhyme Sorts
2. Beginning sound sorts
Rhyming Sort
Purpose:
Can the students hear the
rhyme in common words.
How it works:
Give the students four pictures and have them match them up based on which ones rhyme.
Beginning
Sound Sort
Purpose:
This test will see if the student can take common words and distinguish the initial sounds. By the time the child has finished kindergarten they should be able to get seven out of eight correct.
Beginning
Sound Sort
The Study
Participants six children in the third grade. "The study took place over a six-week period"
The three sorting assessments they used were:
1. Open sorts
2. Closed sorts
3. Written sorts
Open Sorts
In this test the students had to sort cards with words written on them. They had to establish categories with the words then explain their categories.
Closed Sorts
This test is similar to open sorts but the students are led by the person giving the test, they are told what the categories are then they must place the cards in the categories they think fit what the person who was giving the test told them.
Written Sorts
In this sort, students were presented with three columns. Each column has a heading with an example. The researcher reads the rest of the words to the students and the students put the words in the correct category.
What They Found
The three types of sorting activities along with the writing activites were put into two different categories.
1. Production Tasks
2. Discussion Tasks
Production Tasks
The production tasks included written word sorts and editing activities. They are considered production because they are producing writing samples.
Discussion Task
This included both open and closed sorting activities.
Results
If you want your students to focus on the sounds in a word then use production task that focus on the phonics .
If you want your students to focus on the visual parts of the word then discussion task would be more appropriate.
We say that some kindergarten children "invent" spelling but actually, they are using what they already know about letters and sounds to spell words.
The spelling of words is a more advanced category of language in that spelling requires children to segment the phonemes in a spoken word and represent those phonemes with letters.
As the child begins to spell a word, he must slowly stretch out the sounds, trying to connect between what he hears and the letters he knows.
Spelling is linked to later reading achievement.
When children confuse drawing and writing, use letterlike forms, letters, or random letters to represent words but without attention to letter and sound correspondence.
Associated with spelling that clearly represents letter-sound correspondences, beginning with control over most initial consonants, some digraphs and blends, and confusion over short vowels.
Characterized by spelling that correctly represents initial and final consonants, blends and digraphs, and short vowels, but not long vowel patterns. Children in this stage "use but confuse" long vowel markers.
Now it's time for you to take the test!
Chart
Letter-Sound Assessment Task
The purpose of this assessment is for a child to quickly identify both upper and lowercase letters and give the sound each letter makes.
Letter-Sound Assessment Task cont.
Fall Assessment

Test identification for both upper- and lowercase letters.
Ask for letter sounds only with uppercase letters.
Assessing Letter-Sound Identification
Letter-Sound Identification is...
When a child is able to look at a letter and recall the sound that it makes.

By saying a letter name, some of the names are imprinted in the sound. (McGrill-Franzen, 2006, p. 46)

A /a/
B /b/
Mid-year and End-of Year

Assess letter and sounds that student didn't know.
Letter Confusion
It is easy for students to confuse letters that look similar.
When teaching how to write letters, teachers focus on the "shapes" that make up that letter.
For example:
P has a circle shape and a stick to make the complete letter P.
When looking at the entire alphabet there are many letters that have a "circle and stick" shape.
For example:
p and q
Resources Used in My Classroom

Phonics Chant gives students the letter name, along with the sound it makes and a word that it starts with.
Resources Used in My Classroom cont.
Have fun teaching puts together an upbeat song that my students get excited to sing to. This video is very catchy and helps my students remember letters and sounds.
References
(2010-2013) McDonald’s Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en/home.html#

Duffelmeyer, F. A., Kruse, A. E., Merkley, D. J., & Fyfe, S. A. (1994). Further validation and enhancement of the Names Test. The Reading Teacher, 48, 118-128.

Goff, G., Schwartz, T., Brown, R., Wood, D., Yang, R., (2006-2013) B is for... Retrieved from http://www.education.com/worksheet/article/coloring-learn-letter-b/

Jenkins, A., KidsTV123, (2012) Phonics song 2 (new version). Retrieved from

M., Eberhardt, J., Frinkle, A., Hall, J., Quigly, J., Alphabet Video. Retrieved from http://www.havefunteaching.com/videos/alphabet-videos/alphabet-video/

McGill-Franzen, A. (2006). Ten minutes that may change a life. In Kindergarten literacy: Matching assessment and instruction in kindergarten (pp. 35-84). New York: Scholastic.

Young, K. (2008). Don't just look, listen: Uncovering children's cognitive strategies during spelling-related activities. Education, 36, 127-138.
This is similar to the open sorts but the researcher tells the students the categories then the students must place the cards in the categories they think they go into.
What is Letter-Sound Identification?
Early Reading Skills
Mimics adult reading behaviors
Environmental print
Letter-Sound Association Cont.
What are some pros to this form of assessment?

What are some cons?
The students must put two of the four pictures under the top picture that has the same beginning sound
Full transcript