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AP World History Timeline
Transcript of AP World History Timeline
Huang He River Civilization
The Indus River Valley Civilizations
The Byzantine Empire
The Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages
The Han Dynasty
The Zhou Dynasty
c. 3000 BCE: Formation of Egyptian civilization.
Egypt produced a quite different society than its Mesopotamian counterpart. It was more fully government-directed and had a more independent business class. It thrived for so long because of strong government and the location of the Nile River.
c. 2560 BCE: The Great Pyramid of Giza is made.
The Great Pyramid of Giza was one of the greatest architectural accomplishments of this time. It served as a tomb for the godlike pharaohs.
1100 BCE: Decline of the Egyptian Empire
The Assyrians and the Persians take over the once mighty Egypt during this period of decline.
700 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Kush
Kush, a bordering African state, conquers and controls Egypt.
323 BCE: Alexander the Great Conquers Egypt
Alexander conquers Egypt and it becomes Greek territory.
30 BCE: Egypt is conquered by Rome
Egypt becomes a Roman province after Octavian annexes the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt.
c. 4000 BCE: Humans settle into Mesopotamia
Mesopotamian civilization began entirely from scratch. It is one of the few civilizations to develop independently, along with Central America and China.
c. 3500 BCE: Sumerians rule Mesopotamia
The Sumerians migrate into Mesopotamia and create the first major civilization in the region. They organize the area into city states. They also develop ziggurats, which were the first form of monumental architecture.
c. 1800 BCE: The Babylonians take over Mesopotamia
Hammurabi, king of Babylon, unites much of Mesopotamia and introduces new laws to the cities, including the Code of Hammurabi, which is considered a huge development in law.
c. 2000 BCE: Chinese produce advanced technology and an elaborate intellectual life.
c. 1500 BCE: The Shang Dynasty
The Shang were warlike nomads who conquered the other Chinese tribes to form what would be China's second dynasty, following the Xia. Under the Shang, the Chinese developed art forms and architectural achievements.
c. 1100 BCE: The End of the Shang Dynasty
The Shang Dynasty ends after Wu Wang takes over and founds the Zhou Dynasty.
c. 800 BCE: Rome is established as a monarchy in central Italy.
c. 509 BCE: The Roman aristocracy drive out the monarchy and establish the Roman Republic.
The Roman Republic extends its influence gradually as it conquers more land, setting the stage for the establishment of an empire.
264-146 BCE: The Three Punic Wars
Rome fights the armies of Carthage and in the process gains more territory for its state.
45 BCE: Julius Caesar ceases power in Rome
The rise of Julius Caesar signifies the end of the republic and the beginning of the empire.
27 BCE: Augustus Caesar becomes the first emperor of Rome.
27 BCE-180 CE: Golden Age of the Roman Empire
Rome goes through a golden period in which they see nothing but advancements in their empire.
324 CE: Constantinople becomes the second capital of the empire.
Trying to regain stability in the empire, Emperor Constantine declares Constantinople as the second capital of the Roman Empire. This only helps split the empire.
380 CE: Christianity becomes the official religion of Rome.
Emperor Theodosius I declares Christianity the official religion of the empire.
395 CE: Rome is divided in two
The Roman Empire is officially split into the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, each with their own emperor.
476 CE: The Fall of Rome
The Western Roman Empire falls to the Goths with Emperor Romulus Augustus being the last Roman emperor. This marks the beginning of the Dark Ages.
c. 1400 BCE: An early kingdom develops around the city of Mycenae showing Egyptian influence.
800-600 BCE: The rise of Greek city-states.
Greece is divided into city-states due to their geographical placement. Sparta and Athens are the greatest of these city-states.
510 BCE: Introduction of Democracy in Athens
Athens is known for its democracy, which was a sharp contrast to Sparta's totalitarian form of government. The citizens of Athens were encouraged to participate in the government.
497-479 BCE: The Persian Wars
Sparta and Athens rise to defend Greece from Persia. This marks the first time that Greece was truly unified.
431-404 BCE: Peloponnesian Wars
After the Greeks defeat the Persians, Sparta and Athens fight for control of Greece. This weakens the state.
359 BCE: Philip II Reigns
Philip II of Macedon takes over Greece and reunifies them. He is assassinated in 336 BCE.
336-323 BCE: Reign of Alexander the Great
Under Alexander the Great, Greek territory is expanded throughout the Mediterranean. Greek influence is seen throughout the Mediterranean, beginning the Hellenistic Period.
323-146 BCE: Hellenistic Period
146 BCE: Rome Rules Greece
Rome invades Greece and successfully conquers the state. Greece is now ruled by Rome.
202 BC.E.: Founding of the Han dynasty.
The Han Dynasty is founded at the end of the Qin Dynasty by Liu Bang, who revolted against the Qin following the death of Shi Huangdi. The Han Dynasty is considered the golden age of Chinese civilization.
135 BCE: Confucianism becomes the official ideology of China
Under Emperor Wu-Ti, China experiences a period of peace and prosperity, as peace is stressed throughout the empire. He also stresses the practice of Confucianism and it soon becomes the main ideology in China.
220 CE: The Fall of the Han Dynasty
Financial difficulties as well as invasions finally topple the Han Dynasty. The Huns take over most of China and this begins a period of political unrest.
1600-1000 BCE: Aryan Invasions in India
The Aryans establish the foundation for future Indian civilization. Their traditions were the basis for Hinduism, which would become a huge social force in later India.
1500-1000 BCE: The Vedic Age
1000-600 BCE: Epic Age
563-483 BCE: The Life of Buddha and the Foundation of Buddhism
Buddhism would play a larger role in later India, but would ultimately find its greatest following in Southeast Asia. Buddhism went against the main ideology of Hinduism, which is why it did not find much favor among rulers.
321 BCE: The Mauryan Dynasty
India is unified under Chandragupta Maurya, who founds the Mauryan Empire.
269-232 BCE: The Reign of Ashoka
Ashoka spreads the influence of Buddhism throughout the kingdom and ushers in a period of Buddhist influence that would later be toppled by the reemergence of Hinduism.
319 BCE.: Foundation of the Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire is considered the golden age of Indian civilization. After Ashoka's death, the Mauryan dynasty begins to decline and the Gupta Dynasty is founded by Chandra Gupta the Great. Although India is now smaller, it flourishes greatly during this time.
535 BCE: The End of the Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire is overturned by the invading Huns. Many aspects of their society live on, including Hinduism.
2.5 million BCE: The origins of the human species.
5 million-12,000 BCE: The Paleolithic Age
The Paleolithic Age, or the Old Stone Age, sees the rise of human intellectual capacity, as humans begin developing simple tools. Humans in this period live off of hunting and gathering.
c. 120,000 BCE: Homo sapiens sapiens develop
Modern humans begin to spread across the world. They develop rituals and cultural beliefs to explain the world around them. This is the basis for religion.
10,200-2,000 BCE: The Neolithic Age
The Neolithic Age is notable for the development of agriculture, which changed how humans lived. Humans no longer had to rely on hunting and gathering and could stay in one area. The Neolithic Age made the dawn of civilizations possible.
3000 BCE: The Bronze Age
Humans develop bronze tools, which they use for farming and weaponry.
1500 BCE: The Iron Age
Humans develop iron tools, which were more efficient and effective than bronze tools.
c. 3300 BCE: The Indus River Valley is settled by farmers.
Agriculture was made convenient in the river valley civilizations due to the placement of the rivers.
c. 3000 BCE: Cities begin to develop in the Indus River Valley
c. 2650 BCE: Mohenjo-Daro flourishes
Mohenjo-Daro, along with Harappa, was an economic and social hub in the Indus River Valley Civilizations. It had many achievements, including an undecipherable language and "The Great Bath."
c. 1500 BCE: The End of Indus River Valley Civilization
Following an era of decline due to natural disasters and invasions, the Indus River Valley civilization ends, with many cities completely abandoned.
1029 BCE: The Zhou Dynasty is formed
The Zhou conquers the Shang and extends China to the "Middle Kingdom." They farm wheat in the north and rice in the south. They also develop the idea of the Mandate of Heaven, which is used to control the people and keep them obedient to the emperor.
700 BCE: The Zhou Dynasty begins to decline
551-479 BCE: The life of Confucius and the foundation of Confucianism
Possibly the most influential philosopher in Chinese civilization, Confucius' teachings played a key role during the Han dynasty, as they helped establish order in the state.
402-201 BCE: The Period of Warring States
A period of great political unrest, this period sees the Zhou divided between eight states and at constant war with one another. This weakens the state and allows Qin Shi Huangdi to conquer them all.
221 BCE: The Fall of the Zhou Dynasty
Qin Shi Huangdi conquers all of the Zhou Dynasty and proclaims himself emperor, founding the Qin Dynasty.
The Qin Dynasty
221 BCE: Shi Huangdi founds the Qin Dynasty.
Following a period of political unrest in the Zhou dynasty, Shi Huangdi ceases the opportunity to take control of the weakened state. He is known for being a brutal dictator, but he is also a very affective ruler. Under his rule, regional rulers are stripped of their power, a national census as well as coins and weights are standardized, and a uniform written language is introduced.
c. 220 BCE: The Great Wall of China is built
Under Shi Huangdi, the Chinese build the first Great Wall.
c. 210 BCE: The Death of Shi Huangdi and End of the Qin Dynasty
Following the emperor's death, massive revolts take place and eventually, two peasants overtake the empire and found the Han Dynasty.
The Persian Empire
550-533 BCE: The reign of Cyrus the Great
Under Cyrus the Great, Persia is united and its influence is spread through conquests. It is the Persians who defeat the Babylonians. The Persians were tolerant of local customs and began a practice of monotheism through Zoroastrianism.
490-479 BCE: The Persian Wars
The Persians wish to conquer Greece, which causes the Greeks to unite, with Sparta and Athens at the forefront against Persia. The Greeks eventually win.
330 BCE: Alexander the Great destroys the Persian Empire
Following a series of battles between Alexander and King Darius III, Alexander finally destroys the Empire.
1800 BCE-200 CE: Formative Period
During this period writing, cities, and states develop in Mesoamerica. The Olmec develop and flourish during this time. They lay the foundation for future Mesoamerican civilizations as the Sumerians did in Mesopotamia. The Maya begin development late in this period.
200-1000 CE: Classic Era
This period sees the rise of the Mayan Empire and sees Teotihuacan as a center of civilization in Mesoamerica. The Mayans develop many advancements in science, which is extraordinary due to their isolation.
476 CE: The Eastern Roman Empire becomes the Byzantine Empire
Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire survives and becomes the Byzantine Empire.
526 CE: Emperor Justinian Reigns
Justinian conquers former Roman territories and tries to recapture the glory of Rome. He codifies Roman laws into the empire. The empire speaks Greek and Christianity is their official religion.